Topic Review
Relative Humidity
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest. The same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is the dew point.
  • 18
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Ground Level Ozone
Ground level ozone (O3), also known as tropospheric ozone, is a trace gas of the troposphere (the lowest level of the Earth's atmosphere), with an average concentration of 20–30 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with close to 100 ppbv in polluted areas. Ozone is also an important constituent of the stratosphere, where the ozone layer exists which is located between 10 and 50 kilometers above the Earth's surface. The troposphere extends from the ground up to a variable height of approximately 14 kilometers above sea level. Ozone is least concentrated in the ground layer (or planetary boundary layer) of the troposphere. Ground level or tropospheric ozone is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx gases) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The combination of these chemicals in the presence of sunlight form ozone. Its concentration increases as height above sea level increases, with a maximum concentration at the tropopause. About 90% of total ozone in the atmosphere is in the stratosphere, and 10% is in the troposphere. Although tropospheric ozone is less concentrated than stratospheric ozone, it is of concern because of its health effects. Ozone in the troposphere is considered a greenhouse gas, and may contribute to global warming. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving ozone drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the troposphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations (the largest source being emissions from combustion of fossil fuels), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. Its levels have increased significantly since the industrial revolution, as NOx gasses and VOCs are some of the byproducts of combustion. With more heat and sunlight in the summer months, more ozone is formed which is why regions often experience higher levels of pollution in the summer months. Although the same molecule, ground level ozone can be harmful to our health, unlike stratospheric ozone that protects the earth from excess UV radiation. Photolysis of ozone occurs at wavelengths below approximately 310–320 nanometres. This reaction initiates the chain of chemical reactions that remove carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons from the atmosphere via oxidation. Therefore, the concentration of tropospheric ozone affects how long these compounds remain in the air. If the oxidation of carbon monoxide or methane occur in the presence of nitrogen monoxide (NO), this chain of reactions has a net product of ozone added to the system.
  • 3
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Global View of Machine Learning and Forest Fire
Utilising machine learning techniques in aiding forest fire detection, analysis, and prediction is not new, and these techniques have been successfully adopted in many other countries as they have been gaining more attention. Hence, this is probably a potential research direction to be delved into in the near future.
  • 29
  • 22 Sep 2022
Topic Review
PM0.1 in Southeast Asian Cities
PM0.1 (particles with a diameter ≤ 0.1 µm), nanoparticles (NPs), or ultrafine particles (UFPs) were interchangeably used in the scientific communities. PM0.1 originated from both natural and human sources.
  • 54
  • 30 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Mercury in the Southern Hemisphere
Mercury is a toxic pollutant that can negatively impact the population’s health and the environment. The research on atmospheric mercury is of critical concern because of the diverse process that this pollutant suffers in the atmosphere as well as its deposition capacity, which can provoke diverse health issues.
  • 41
  • 26 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Polar Vortex Causes Temporal Variability of Solar-Atmospheric Links
The stratospheric polar vortex is a large-scale cyclonic circulation that forms in a cold air mass in the polar region and extends from the middle troposphere to the stratosphere. The polar vortex is implicated in a variety of atmospheric processes, such as the formation of ozone holes, the North Atlantic and the Arctic Oscillations, variations in extratropical cyclone tracks, etc. The vortex plays an important part in the mechanism of solar activity influence on lower atmosphere circulation, with variations in the vortex intensity being responsible for temporal variability in the correlation links observed between atmospheric characteristics and solar activity phenomena. In turn, the location of the vortex is favorable for the influence of ionization changes associated with charged particle fluxes (cosmic rays, auroral and radiation belt electrons) that affect the chemical composition and temperature regime of the polar atmosphere as well as its electric properties and cloudiness state. 
  • 51
  • 08 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Indigenous Kinabatangan Perspectives on Climate Change Adaptations
Indigenous perspectives on the effects of climate change are frequently elicited through surveys and interviews, and the responses are compared to meteorological data. However, there remains a limited approach to examining the underlying predictors that best determine Indigenous support for adaptation strategies. Some Indigenous communities do not draw a causal link between the effects and responses to climate hazards. Coping strategies such as the inclusion of Indigenous livelihoods, a bottom-up approach, and transparent communication are suggested to cultivate Indigenous support for climate change adaptation. 
  • 78
  • 17 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Wind Farms and Humidity
Several investigations have shown that enhanced mixing brought about by wind turbines alters near-surface meteorological conditions within and downstream of a wind farm. When scalar meteorological parameters have been considered, the focus has most often centered on temperature changes. A subset of these works has also considered humidity to various extents. These limited investigations are complemented by just a few studies dedicated to analyzing humidity changes. With onshore wind turbines often sited in agricultural areas, any changes to the microclimate surrounding a turbine can impact plant health and the length of the growing season; any changes to the environment around an offshore wind farm can change cloud and fog formation and dissipation, among other impacts. This article provides a review of observational field campaigns and numerical investigations examining changes to humidity within wind turbine array boundary layers. Across the range of empirical observations and numerical simulations, changes to humidity were observed in stably stratified conditions. In addition to the role of atmospheric stability, this review reveals that the nature of the change depends on the upstream moisture profile; robustness of the mixing; turbine array layout; distance from the turbine, in all three directions; and vertical temperature profile.
  • 256
  • 15 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Molecular to Meteorological
The path from molecular to meteorological scales begins with the persistence of molecular velocity after collision inducing symmetry breaking, from continuous translational to scale invariant, associated with the emergence of hydrodynamic behaviour in a Maxwellian (randomised) population undergoing an anisotropic flux. The statistical multifractal formulation of observed atmospheric variability enables the examination of turbulence. The unexpected correlation between the intermittency of temperature and the ozone photodissociation rate in the lower Arctic stratosphere led to an analysis of the role of Gibbs free energy in the general circulation of the atmosphere, and a suggestion to solve the persistent cold bias in its siumlation by free running numerical models.
  • 101
  • 12 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Low-Level Jets in Heavy Rainfall in Taiwan
During the early summer rainy season over Taiwan, three types of low-level jets are observed, including a synoptic low-level jet (SLLJ) situated in the 850–700 hPa layer in the frontal zone, a marine boundary layer jet (MBLJ) embedded within the southwesterly monsoon flow over the northern South China Sea at approximately the 925 hPa level, and an orographically induced jet at approximately the 1 km level off the northwestern Taiwan coast (e.g., barrier jet (BJ)).
  • 104
  • 31 Mar 2022
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