Topic Review
Wind Speed Analysis of Hurricane Sandy
The database of the HWind project sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for hurricanes between 1994 and 2013 is analysed. Moreover, the wind speed of Hurricane Sandy is studied.
  • 291
  • 18 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Wind Farms and Humidity
Several investigations have shown that enhanced mixing brought about by wind turbines alters near-surface meteorological conditions within and downstream of a wind farm. When scalar meteorological parameters have been considered, the focus has most often centered on temperature changes. A subset of these works has also considered humidity to various extents. These limited investigations are complemented by just a few studies dedicated to analyzing humidity changes. With onshore wind turbines often sited in agricultural areas, any changes to the microclimate surrounding a turbine can impact plant health and the length of the growing season; any changes to the environment around an offshore wind farm can change cloud and fog formation and dissipation, among other impacts. This article provides a review of observational field campaigns and numerical investigations examining changes to humidity within wind turbine array boundary layers. Across the range of empirical observations and numerical simulations, changes to humidity were observed in stably stratified conditions. In addition to the role of atmospheric stability, this review reveals that the nature of the change depends on the upstream moisture profile; robustness of the mixing; turbine array layout; distance from the turbine, in all three directions; and vertical temperature profile.
  • 263
  • 15 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Water-Soluble Organic Matter
Inspired by studies on outdoor organic aerosols (OA), recent studies discusses and prioritizes issues related to indoor water-soluble OA and their effects on human health, providing a basis for future research in the field. The following three main topics are addressed: (1) what is known about the origin, mass contribution, and health effects of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in outdoor air particles; (2) the current state-of-the-art on the WSOM in indoor air particles, the main challenges and opportunities for its chemical characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation; and (3) why the aerosol WSOM should be considered in future indoor air quality studies.
  • 202
  • 08 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Viable Bacteria in Dust-Generating Area
The distribution of microorganisms in the atmospheric circulation affects the animals that inhabit the area. Also, many organisms that share the environment also influence the distribution of environmental bacteria. In this paper, we focused on microbes that survive on the surface of Asian Dust, and clarified their topographical features and distribution. The characteristics of microorganisms that are easily influenced by environmental factors, and their effects on the atmospheric circulation are considered as issues of the One Health Concept.
  • 668
  • 16 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Vegetation Dynamics and Climate Change
Climate extremes and their impacts on vegetation dynamics have been of great concern to the ecosystem and environmental conservation and the policy-decision makers. Of great concern now is that climate change impacts on vegetation dynamics have influenced the global terrestrial ecosystem adversely, thus making ecosystems vulnerability one of the current issues in ecological studies. For instance, the negative consequences attributed to natural hazards associated with climate extremes have been estimated to be billions of dollars across the globe. Accordingly, vegetation dynamics are influenced by several factors including climate change, environmental and climatic components among others. These can expend considerable impact on the water balance by evapotranspiration, interception and development strategy which has the potential to lead to vegetation degradation in a wide variety of ecosystems and biodiversity.
  • 175
  • 30 Sep 2021
Topic Review
UAVs to CBRN Threats monitoring
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) play an increasingly important role in various areas of life, including in terms of protection and security. The possibilities of using the devices were analyzed in terms of weather conditions, construction, and used materials in CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) threat situations. It was found that, thanks to the use of appropriate sensors, cameras, and software of UAVs integrated with a given system, it is possible to obtain information on air quality at a given moment, which is very important for the safety of people and the environment. However, several elements, including the possibility of use in acidification conditions, requires refinement to changing crisis conditions.
  • 288
  • 28 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Tungurahua Volcano (Ecuador)
Since April of 2015, the ash dispersion and ash fallout due to Vulcanian eruptions at Tungurahua, one of the most active volcanoes in Ecuador, have been forecasted daily. For this purpose, our forecasting system uses the meteorological Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the FALL3D models. Previously, and based on field data, laboratory, and numerical studies, corresponding eruption source parameters (ESP) have been defined. We analyzed the historically forecasted results of the ash fallout quantities over four years (April 2015 to March 2019), in order to obtain the average isomass and probability maps for three-month periods: February–March–April (FMA), May–June–July (MJJ), August–September–October (ASO), and November–December–January (NDJ). Our results indicate similar ash fallout shapes during MJJ and ASO, with a clear and defined tendency toward the west of the volcano; this tendency is less defined during NDJ and FMA. The proximal region west of the volcano (about 100 km to the west) has the highest probability (>70%) of being affected by ash fallout. The distant region to the west (more than 100 km west) presented low to medium probabilities (10%–70%) of ash fallout. The cities of Guaranda (W, 60% to 90%), Riobamba (SW, 70%), and Ambato (NW, 50% to 60%) have the highest probabilities of being affected by ash fallout. Among the large Ecuadorian cities, Guayaquil (SW, 10% to 30%) has low probability, and Quito (N, ≤5%) and Cuenca (SSE, <5%) have very low probabilities of being affected by ash fallout. High ash clouds can move in different directions, compared to wind transport near the surface. Therefore, it is possible to detect ash clouds by remote sensing which, in Ecuador, is limited to the layers over the meteorological clouds, which move in a different direction than low wind; the latter produces ash fallout over regions in different directions compared to the detected ash clouds. In addition to the isomass/probability maps and detected ash clouds, forecasting is permanently required in Ecuador.
  • 316
  • 21 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Snow-Disaster Risk Zoning and Assessment in Heilongjiang Province
Heilongjiang Province is located in Northeast China and has the highest latitude in China. It has a long and cold winter and a mild monsoon climate. The unique geographical location and climatic conditions make it the second largest stable snow area in China. The winter snowfall period begins in October and ends in April of the next year. Therefore, long-term snow has caused road obstruction and low-temperature freezing damage, which has seriously affected local economic development and personal safety.
  • 86
  • 19 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Relative Humidity
Relative humidity (RH) is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water at a given temperature. Relative humidity depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest. The same amount of water vapor results in higher relative humidity in cool air than warm air. A related parameter is the dew point.
  • 23
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Potential Ozone Impacts of Landfills
Landfill gas produces ozone precursors such as nitrogen oxides and formaldehyde when combusted in flares or stationary engines. Solid waste landfills are also the third largest anthropogenic source of methane in the United States. Methane is both a greenhouse gas and a tropospheric ozone precursor. Despite its low photochemical reactivity, methane may noticeably affect urban ozone if released in large quantities along with other organic compounds in landfill gas. A fine-scale 3D Eulerian chemical transport model was used to demonstrate that, under meteorological and background chemical conditions conducive to high ozone concentrations, typical emissions of ozone precursors from a single hypothetical landfill may result in persistent daytime additions to ozone of over 1 part per billion (ppb) by volume tens of kilometers downwind.
  • 100
  • 14 Jul 2021
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