Log in/Sign up
Arts & Humanities
Biology & Life Sciences
Business & Economics
Chemistry & Materials Science
Computer Science & Mathematics
Environmental & Earth Sciences
Medicine & Pharmacology
Public Health & Healthcare
Wind Speed Analysis of Hurricane Sandy
The database of the HWind project sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for hurricanes between 1994 and 2013 is analysed. Moreover, the wind speed of Hurricane Sandy is studied.
18 Nov 2021
Wind Farms and Humidity
Several investigations have shown that enhanced mixing brought about by wind turbines alters near-surface meteorological conditions within and downstream of a wind farm. When scalar meteorological parameters have been considered, the focus has most often centered on temperature changes. A subset of these works has also considered humidity to various extents. These limited investigations are complemented by just a few studies dedicated to analyzing humidity changes. With onshore wind turbines often sited in agricultural areas, any changes to the microclimate surrounding a turbine can impact plant health and the length of the growing season; any changes to the environment around an offshore wind farm can change cloud and fog formation and dissipation, among other impacts. This article provides a review of observational field campaigns and numerical investigations examining changes to humidity within wind turbine array boundary layers. Across the range of empirical observations and numerical simulations, changes to humidity were observed in stably stratified conditions. In addition to the role of atmospheric stability, this review reveals that the nature of the change depends on the upstream moisture profile; robustness of the mixing; turbine array layout; distance from the turbine, in all three directions; and vertical temperature profile.
15 Apr 2022
Water-Soluble Organic Matter
Inspired by studies on outdoor organic aerosols (OA), recent studies discusses and prioritizes issues related to indoor water-soluble OA and their effects on human health, providing a basis for future research in the field. The following three main topics are addressed: (1) what is known about the origin, mass contribution, and health effects of water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) in outdoor air particles; (2) the current state-of-the-art on the WSOM in indoor air particles, the main challenges and opportunities for its chemical characterization and cytotoxicity evaluation; and (3) why the aerosol WSOM should be considered in future indoor air quality studies.
08 Nov 2021
Viable Bacteria in Dust-Generating Area
The distribution of microorganisms in the atmospheric circulation affects the animals that inhabit the area. Also, many organisms that share the environment also influence the distribution of environmental bacteria. In this paper, we focused on microbes that survive on the surface of Asian Dust, and clarified their topographical features and distribution. The characteristics of microorganisms that are easily influenced by environmental factors, and their effects on the atmospheric circulation are considered as issues of the One Health Concept.
16 Sep 2020
Vegetation Dynamics and Climate Change
Climate extremes and their impacts on vegetation dynamics have been of great concern to the ecosystem and environmental conservation and the policy-decision makers. Of great concern now is that climate change impacts on vegetation dynamics have influenced the global terrestrial ecosystem adversely, thus making ecosystems vulnerability one of the current issues in ecological studies. For instance, the negative consequences attributed to natural hazards associated with climate extremes have been estimated to be billions of dollars across the globe. Accordingly, vegetation dynamics are influenced by several factors including climate change, environmental and climatic components among others. These can expend considerable impact on the water balance by evapotranspiration, interception and development strategy which has the potential to lead to vegetation degradation in a wide variety of ecosystems and biodiversity.
30 Sep 2021
Urban Transportation Meteorological Observation
With the advantages of various advanced technologies from multiple aspects, researchers could further expand explorations on urban transportation meteorological observations. Associated theoretical studies and practical investigations are also to be carried out to provide solid scientific foundations for urban transportation disaster prevention and mitigation, for implementing the action of meteorological guarantees, and for the construction of a high-quality smart society.
25 Nov 2022
UAVs to CBRN Threats monitoring
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) play an increasingly important role in various areas of life, including in terms of protection and security. The possibilities of using the devices were analyzed in terms of weather conditions, construction, and used materials in CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) threat situations. It was found that, thanks to the use of appropriate sensors, cameras, and software of UAVs integrated with a given system, it is possible to obtain information on air quality at a given moment, which is very important for the safety of people and the environment. However, several elements, including the possibility of use in acidification conditions, requires refinement to changing crisis conditions.
28 Dec 2020
Tungurahua Volcano (Ecuador)
Since April of 2015, the ash dispersion and ash fallout due to Vulcanian eruptions at Tungurahua, one of the most active volcanoes in Ecuador, have been forecasted daily. For this purpose, our forecasting system uses the meteorological Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the FALL3D models. Previously, and based on field data, laboratory, and numerical studies, corresponding eruption source parameters (ESP) have been defined. We analyzed the historically forecasted results of the ash fallout quantities over four years (April 2015 to March 2019), in order to obtain the average isomass and probability maps for three-month periods: February–March–April (FMA), May–June–July (MJJ), August–September–October (ASO), and November–December–January (NDJ). Our results indicate similar ash fallout shapes during MJJ and ASO, with a clear and defined tendency toward the west of the volcano; this tendency is less defined during NDJ and FMA. The proximal region west of the volcano (about 100 km to the west) has the highest probability (>70%) of being affected by ash fallout. The distant region to the west (more than 100 km west) presented low to medium probabilities (10%–70%) of ash fallout. The cities of Guaranda (W, 60% to 90%), Riobamba (SW, 70%), and Ambato (NW, 50% to 60%) have the highest probabilities of being affected by ash fallout. Among the large Ecuadorian cities, Guayaquil (SW, 10% to 30%) has low probability, and Quito (N, ≤5%) and Cuenca (SSE, <5%) have very low probabilities of being affected by ash fallout. High ash clouds can move in different directions, compared to wind transport near the surface. Therefore, it is possible to detect ash clouds by remote sensing which, in Ecuador, is limited to the layers over the meteorological clouds, which move in a different direction than low wind; the latter produces ash fallout over regions in different directions compared to the detected ash clouds. In addition to the isomass/probability maps and detected ash clouds, forecasting is permanently required in Ecuador.
21 Aug 2020
A trough is an elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure without a closed isobaric contour that would define it as a low pressure area. Since low pressure implies a low height on a pressure surface, troughs and ridges refer to features in an identical sense as those on a topographic map. Troughs may be at the surface, or aloft. Near-surface troughs sometimes mark a weather front associated with clouds, showers, and a wind direction shift. Upper-level troughs in the jet stream (as shown in diagram) reflect cyclonic filaments of vorticity. Their motion induces upper-level wind divergence, lifting and cooling the air ahead (downstream) of the trough and helping to produce cloudy and rain conditions there. Unlike fronts, there is not a universal symbol for a trough on a surface weather analysis chart. The weather charts in some countries or regions mark troughs by a line. In the United States, a trough may be marked as a dashed line or bold line. In the UK, Hong Kong and Fiji, it is represented by a bold line extended from a low pressure center or between two low pressure centers; in Macau and Australia, it is a dashed line. If they are not marked, troughs may still be identified as an extension of isobars away from a low pressure center.
14 Oct 2022
Ozone (O3) is a trace gas of the troposphere, with an average concentration of 20–30 parts per billion by volume (ppbv), with close to 100 ppbv in polluted areas. Ozone is also an important constituent of the stratosphere, where the ozone layer exists which is located between 10 and 50 kilometers above the earths surface. The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere. It extends from the ground up to a variable height of approximately 14 kilometers above sea level. Ozone is least concentrated in the ground layer (or planetary boundary layer) of the troposphere. Ground level or tropospheric ozone is created by chemical reactions between oxides of nitrogen (NOx gases) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The combination of these chemicals in the presence of sunlight form ozone. Its concentration increases as height above sea level increases, with a maximum concentration at the tropopause. About 90% of total ozone in the atmosphere is in the stratosphere, and 10% is in the troposphere. Although tropospheric ozone is less concentrated than stratospheric ozone, it is of concern because of its health effects. Ozone in the troposphere is considered a greenhouse gas, and may contribute to global warming. Photochemical and chemical reactions involving ozone drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the troposphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations (the largest source being emissions from combustion of fossil fuels), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. Its levels have increased significantly since the industrial revolution, as NOx gasses & VOCs are some of the byproducts of combustion. With more heat and sunlight in the summer months, more ozone is formed which is why regions often experience higher levels of pollution in the summer months. Although the same molecule, ground level ozone can be harmful to our health, unlike stratospheric ozone that protects the earth from excess UV radiation. Photolysis of ozone occurs at wavelengths below approximately 310–320 nanometres. This reaction initiates the chain of chemical reactions that remove carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons from the atmosphere via oxidation. Therefore, the concentration of tropospheric ozone affects how long these compounds remain in the air. If the oxidation of carbon monoxide or methane occur in the presence of nitrogen monoxide (NO), this chain of reactions has a net product of ozone added to the system.
24 Nov 2022
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of Piezoelectrics
Log in/Sign up
Terms and Conditions
Browse our user manual, common Q&A, author guidelines, etc.
Rate your experience
Let us know your experience and what we could improve.
Report an error
Is something wrong? Please let us know!
Other feedback you would like to report.
Did you find what you were looking for?
Do you agree to share your valuable feedback publicly on
Yes, I agree. Encyclopedia can post it.
No, I do not agree. I would not like to post my testimonial.
Upload a screenshot
(Max file size 2MB)