Topic Review
Aerosol Characteristics on the Himalayan Energy Budget
The extensive work on the increasing burden of aerosols and resultant climate implications shows a matter of great concern.
  • 110
  • 11 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Air during New Year’s Eve
Mosses are one of the best bioindicators in the assessment of atmospheric aerosol pollution by heavy metals. Studies using mosses allow both short- and long-term air quality monitoring. The increasing contamination of the environment (including air) is causing a search for new, cheap and effective methods of monitoring its condition. Once such method is the use of mosses in active biomonitoring. The aim of the entry was to assess the atmospheric aerosol pollution with selected heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) from the smoke of fireworks used during New Year’s Eve in the years 2019/2020 and 2020/2021.
  • 173
  • 16 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Air Pollution Policy in Israel
Since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel has been oriented towards economic development and industrialization, with a transportation sector increasingly focused on private cars. In 1961, initial awareness of environmental risks led to the adoption of the Abatement of Nuisances Law, which served as the platform for air pollution policy for several decades, even as population growth and growth of the industrial sector, including fossil fuel power plants, led to a continuous increase in air pollution. In the early 2000s, the environmental movement in Israel criticized local air pollution policy as being out of date and started to promote a new Clean Air Law. The law, which was adopted in 2008 and came into force in 2011, was a watershed in air pollution policy in Israel. It includes ambient air quality values for 28 contaminants, emission permits for the industrial sector based on best available techniques (BAT), an enforcement system, and a unified and transparent monitoring system. This entry introduces the history of air pollution policy in Israel from 1948, through the 1961 and 2008 landmark legislations and their strengths and weaknesses, to the present. Also, it gives  recommendations for future air pollution policy in Israel.
  • 256
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Air Quality and Shipping Emissions
Maritime transport has been recognized as an essential driver for economic and social development, especially for coastal regions. However, shipping and in-port activities pose public health issues and environmental pressures, exposing coastal population to associated emissions (i.e., particulate matter and gaseous pollutants). In the last decades, several policies have been implemented at local/regional and international level, reducing the content of sulphur in marine fuels. This work provides a brief comment of some recent results regarding the impacts of maritime emissions on air quality, health effects and future projections, taking into account the current implementation of the IMO-2020 legislation. Finally, future perspectives and potential mitigation strategies are discussed.
  • 147
  • 18 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Air Quality Management
Most of the Ecuador buses run on diesel, emitting high quantities  NOx and PM2.5.  Into the framework of promoting the use of low impact energy and efficiency, the Ecuadorian energy efficiency law requires by 2025 that all vehicles incorporated into the public transportation system must be electric. To assess the effects on the air quality of Cuenca, a city located al the Southern Andean region of Ecuador, we used the Eulerian Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model. The results were consistent with the pollutants' trends observed during the COVID-19 lockdown in this city.
  • 248
  • 09 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Application of CMAQ during SOAS
Formation of aerosol from biogenic hydrocarbons relies heavily on anthropogenic emissions since they control the availability of species such as sulfate and nitrate, and through them, aerosol acidity (pH). To elucidate the role that acidity and emissions play in regulating Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA), we utilize the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) dataset to enhance the extensive mechanism of isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX)-mediated SOA formation implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model (Pye et al., 2013), which was then used to investigate the impact of potential future emission controls on IEPOX OA.
  • 131
  • 29 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Assessment System and Observation Network
We propose to build on and link with the existing research activities and observational networks and infrastructures to specifically address the key North Atlantic challenges that encompass a range of policy areas. This will strengthen the institutional response to weather, climate, environmental and ecological threats and reduce societal risk. 
  • 97
  • 16 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Assimilation of Key Data in Land Surface Models
The correction of Soil Moisture (SM) estimates in Land Surface Models (LSMs) is considered essential for improving the performance of numerical weather forecasting and hydrologic models used in weather and climate studies. Along with surface screen-level variables, the satellite data, including Brightness Temperature (BT) from passive microwave sensors, and retrieved SM from active, passive, or combined active–passive sensor products have been used as two critical inputs in improvements of the LSM.
  • 158
  • 22 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Atmospheric Correction for Landsat 8
Ocean colour (OC) remote sensing is important for monitoring marine ecosystems. However, inverting the OC signal from the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measured by satellite sensors remains a challenge as the retrieval accuracy is highly dependent on the performance of the atmospheric correction as well as sensor calibration. In this study, the performances of four atmospheric correction (AC) algorithms, the Atmospheric and Radiometric Correction of Satellite Imagery (ARCSI), Atmospheric Correction for OLI ‘lite’ (ACOLITE), Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance (LSR) Climate Data Record (Landsat CDR), herein referred to as LaSRC (Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance Code), and the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) Data Analysis System (SeaDAS), implemented for Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data, were evaluated. The OLI-derived remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) products (also known as Level-2 products) were tested against near-simultaneous in-situ data acquired from the OC component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC). Analyses of the match-ups revealed that generic atmospheric correction methods (i.e., ARCSI and LaSRC), which perform reasonably well over land, provide inaccurate Level-2 products over coastal waters, in particular, in the blue bands. Between water-specific AC methods (i.e., SeaDAS and ACOLITE), SeaDAS was found to perform better over complex waters with root-mean-square error (RMSE) varying from 0.0013 to 0.0005 sr−1 for the 443 and 655 nm channels, respectively. An assessment of the effects of dominant environmental variables revealed AC retrieval errors were influenced by the solar zenith angle and wind speed for ACOLITE and SeaDAS in the 443 and 482 nm channels. Recognizing that the AERONET-OC sites are not representative of inland waters, extensive research and analyses are required to further evaluate the performance of various AC methods for high-resolution imagers like Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 under a broad range of aquatic/atmospheric conditions.
  • 1623
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Atmospheric Influence on Grapevine Development
In many European regions, viticulture and winemaking play a major socioeconomic role in local economies, with climate being a central component of the terroirs, governing vineyard microclimate, vine development and growth, phenology, yield, and grape berry composition, which ultimately control attributes and typicity of the produced wines. Nonetheless, climate change is already affecting the viticultural suitability of many wine regions throughout the continent and is expected to continue along this same path in the upcoming decades. These climate-driven shifts may lead to a redesign of the geographical distribution of wine regions, while wine typicity may also be threatened in most cases. Climate change does require the implementation of well-timed, appropriate, and economically efficient adaptation strategies, while respecting local specificities for an effective reduction of the risks to which this vulnerable sector is exposed. However, knowledge on the adaptation potential of a range of measures is still incipient and will need more research in the near future.
  • 470
  • 28 Oct 2020
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