Topic Review
The Development of Chronic Low Back Pain
Low back pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide, with up to 80% of the population experiencing this at some point in their life. Chronic back pain is complex and there is currently no cure for it, nor does alleviating potential causes guarantee that pain will go away. Therefore, rather than attempting to “cure” chronic pain, many clinicians, caregivers and researchers aim to help educate patients about their pain and try to help them live a better quality of life despite their condition. This may include using strategies such as pain neuroscience education (PNE) and cognitive behavior therapy. PNE, for example, is considered an intervention aimed at reconceptualizing an individual’s understanding of their pain as less threatening. A systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that PNE can have a significant effect in reducing pain catastrophizing as well as kinesiophobia. This is highly beneficial in pain management, as reduced catastrophic thinking can help orient a person away from their pain and towards living their life, and reduced fear helps patients to be more open to active interventions like physical therapy and exercise. Pain education is often paired with physical therapy, or used pre-emptively for things like post-operative pain.
  • 10
  • 03 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Multiple Functions of Melatonin in the Military Setting
Melatonin is a technique that is being increasingly employed to manage growing psycho-physical loads. In this context, melatonin, a pleotropic and regulatory molecule, has a potential preventive and therapeutic role in maintaining the operational efficiency of military personnel. In battlefield conditions in particular, the time to treatment after an injury is often a major issue since the injured may not have immediate access to medical care. Any drug that would help to stabilize a wounded individual, especially if it can be immediately administered (e.g., per os) and has a very high safety profile over a large range of doses (as melatonin does) would be an important asset to reduce morbidity and mortality.
  • 14
  • 01 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Formalising Biodiversity Inclusive Design
Biodiversity Inclusive Design (BID) is an approach to design that seeks to foster functional ecological systems, enable species’ persistence within the built environment and (re) connect people with nature. BID can support designers’ quest toward biodiversity positivity.
  • 21
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Intangible Mosaic of Sacred Soundscapes in Medieval Serbia
The sacred art and architecture of medieval Serbia developed under the influence of both the Byzantine East and Latin West ever since the adoption of Christianity.  Here, the focuses are particularly on the period from the late 12th century when the Nemanjić dynasty came to the throne until the fall of Serbia under Ottoman rule in the mid-15th century, because this period was fundamental for the development of the Serbian Orthodox Church as well as sacred architecture. It is argued that the archaeoacoustic studies of medieval sacred soundscapes should not be limited to church acoustics but also include open-air sacred sites to provide a complete analysis of the aural environment of religious practice and thus contribute to understanding the acoustic intention of medieval builders, as well as the aural experience of both clergy and laity. 
  • 109
  • 16 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Adaptive Façades
Adaptive building envelope systems can manage energy and mass transformation between indoor and outdoor environments, which contributes to the achievement of environmental benefits via reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission while maintaining human comfort and well-being.
  • 56
  • 06 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Learning Disabilities of Chinese Students
Children with learning disabilities were screened mainly through three ways: the ability–achievement discrepancy approach, Response to Intervention (RTI) and cognitive and neuropsychological assessment of Processing Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW).
  • 28
  • 03 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Children’s Drawings and People’s Subjective Well-Being
Applying the thinking and visual characteristics of children's paintings in artwork can stimulate people's happiness, inspire artists, and arouse the public’s happiness by visual means.  
  • 65
  • 30 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Eight Immortals Metaverse
The metaverse has gained popularity recently in many areas including social media, healthcare, education and manufacturing. Here researchers describe a cultural heritage metaverse for eight immortals.
  • 68
  • 27 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Architectural Perspective of Ant Nests
Ants are excellent architects in the animal kingdom. The activities of “design”, “material selection” and “construction” of their nests are full of magical secrets. After hundreds of millions of years of survival of the fittest, the nests of each species of ant are generally characterised by reasonable structure and good mechanical performance, and also reflect the law of “obtaining large and solid living space with the least amount of material”. The complex underground ant colony nest system is large in scale, stable in internal environmental characteristics, has excellent ventilation, appropriate humidity and temperature, and makes use of natural barriers, such as thin grasses, trees, sand and stone, around entrances and exits, as well as having good physical structure, resistant to pressure, water, heat and moisture. Ants have very strict requirements on the size, weight, lustre and colour of the building materials for the nest, such as soil particles. As social insects, ants are responsible for the site selection and materials selection of their nests, the design of the whole nest, organising and coordinating the grand construction process, and managing the nest. 
  • 76
  • 26 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Seismic Rehabilitation Techniques for Cultural Heritage
Increased awareness of the importance of preserving old masonry structures of cultural heritage has turned to the development of sustainable strategies for their reconstruction and seismic strengthening. Strengthening the fabric and structure of the building are the only means by which it is possible to reduce the effects of an earthquake. Repair and reconstruction techniques must be properly selected in accordance with the structure and characteristics of the material. Historical buildings do not have their cultural significance exclusively as relics from the past, and the value of architectural heritage is not only in its appearance, but also in the integrity of all its components as a unique product of the specific construction technology of its time. 
  • 67
  • 16 Dec 2022
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