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Environmental Awareness and Individual’s Altruism
Environmental awareness is the level of how much people are interested in or care about environmental issues. Environmental awareness can be either local or global one depending on the type of environmental problem. Studies have argued that this awareness tends to be related to an individual’s altruism, which is one’s action that benefits others without expecting some kind of external reward. The connection between environmental awareness and altruism is getting attention from scholars since both concepts are prosocial ones but it is uncertain if people who are highly aware of environmental issues may not be always acting altruistically. However, it is likely that altruistic people are more likely to have high environmental awareness.
28 Oct 2020
Cement Production in Nigeria
Cement is the most common and extensively used adhesive in the construction industry. It is employed on highways, houses, embankments, bridges, commercial establishments, and flyovers. In recent years, the Nigerian cement industry has grown from import dependency to an export-thriving epicentre within Africa. The country possesses the largest cement industry within West Africa, with at least 12 registered companies amounting to a merged cement capacity of 58.9 Mt/yr. Dangote Cement is the largest cement producer in Nigeria and West Africa, manufacturing a combined share of more than 28.5 Mt/yr of cement capacity. Also, LafargeHolcim (through its subsidiary AshakaCem & Lafarge WAPCO) and BUA Group boost 18.9 Mt/yr and 11.5 Mt/yr of integrated cement capacity, respectively.
16 Sep 2021
Adsorbent Technologies for Wastewater Treatment
Wastewater generation and treatment is an ever-increasing concern in the current century due to increased urbanization and industrialization. To tackle the situation of increasing environmental hazards, numerous wastewater treatment approaches are used—i.e., physical, chemical, and biological (primary to tertiary treatment) methods. Various treatment techniques being used have the risks of producing secondary pollutants. The most promising technique is the use of different materials as adsorbents that have a higher efficacy in treating wastewater, with a minimal production of secondary pollutants. Biosorption is a key process that is highly efficient and cost-effective. This method majorly uses the adsorption process/mechanism for toxicant removal from wastewater.
04 Nov 2021
Early Flood Warning System
The early-warning model for flash floods is based on a hydrological and geomorphological concept connected to the river basin, with the principle that flash floods will only occur where there is a high potential risk and when rainfall exceeds the threshold. In the model used to build flash-floods risk maps, the parameters of the basin are analyzed and evaluated and the weight is determined using Thomas Saaty’s analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The flash-floods early-warning software is built using open source programming tools. With the spatial module and online processing, a predicted precipitation of one to six days in advance for iMETOS (AgriMedia—Vietnam) automatic meteorological stations is interpolated and then processed with the potential risk maps (iMETOS is a weather-environment monitoring system comprising a wide range of equipment and an online platform and can be used in various fields such as agriculture, tourism and services). The results determine the locations of flash floods at several risk levels corresponding to the predicted rainfall values at the meteorological stations. The system was constructed and applied to flash floods disaster early warning for Thuan Chau in Son La province when the rainfall exceeded the 150 mm/d threshold. The system initially supported positive decision-making to prevent and minimize damage caused by flash floods.
27 Jan 2022
Acid rain has an acidity that is higher than that of normal rainwater. Normal rainwater is not neutral (which would be pH 7) but slightly acidic (it has a pH < 5.5), because some of the carbon dioxide CO2 dissolved in the water is present as carbonic acid H2CO3. In acid rain, chemicals from pollution and natural causes such as volcanic eruptions and emissions from vegetation increase the acidity of the water to as low as pH 4.4 to 4 (as measured in the 1990s in various places). Such acidic rainwater is dangerous for people, vegetation, water bodies including the oceans and its inhabitants, buildings and soil. Since the pH scale is logarithmic, a change from 5.5 to 4.5 means a tenfold increase in acidity. The three main pollutants that cause acid rain are the nitric oxides NO and NO2 (summarized as NOx) and sulfur dioxide SO2. These substances react with water to nitric acid HNO3 and sulfuric acid H2SO4. In the 1980s, in nearly all of Northern Europe and in the Northern United States, suddenly and unexpectedly, whole forests began to die (this effect got to be known as forest dieback). German forests especially experienced severe damage: from 8% in 1982 it increased to 50% in 1984, and stayed as such till 1987. The damage occurred amongst various tree species. Researchers established connections of this damage to acid rain. The mandatory installment of sulfur filters in coal power plants and of catalytic converters in cars in various industrialized countries reduced air pollution with the chemicals related to the formation of acid rain, and, although the forests are still not in perfect shape (about 20% are heavily impaired) a complete death was prevented.
15 Nov 2022
Chemtrail Conspiracy Theory
The chemtrail conspiracy theory posits the erroneous belief that long-lasting condensation trails are "chemtrails" consisting of chemical or biological agents left in the sky by high-flying aircraft, sprayed for nefarious purposes undisclosed to the general public. Believers in this conspiracy theory say that while normal contrails dissipate relatively quickly, contrails that linger must contain additional substances. Those who subscribe to the theory speculate that the purpose of the chemical release may be solar radiation management, weather modification, psychological manipulation, human population control, biological or chemical warfare, or testing of biological or chemical agents on a population, and that the trails are causing respiratory illnesses and other health problems. The claim has been dismissed by the scientific community. There is no evidence that purported chemtrails differ from normal water-based contrails routinely left by high-flying aircraft under certain atmospheric conditions. Although proponents have tried to prove that chemical spraying occurs, their analyses have been flawed or based on misconceptions. Because of the persistence of the conspiracy theory and questions about government involvement, scientists and government agencies around the world have repeatedly explained that the supposed chemtrails are in fact normal contrails. The term chemtrail is a portmanteau of the words chemical and trail, just as contrail is a portmanteau of condensation and trail.
31 Oct 2022
As is widely recognized, rainfall data is necessary for the mathematical modelling of extreme hydrological events, such as droughts or floods, as well as for evaluating surface and subsurface water resources and their quality. The phase, quantity, and elevation of generic hydrometeors in the atmosphere can be estimated by ground-based radars. Satellites can provide images with visible and infrared radiation, and they can also serve as platforms for radiometers to derive the quantity and phase of hydrometeors. Radars and satellites provide spatial information on precipitation at wide scales, avoiding many problems connected to local ground measurements, including those for the areal inhomogeneity of a network. However, direct rainfall observations at point scale can be obtained only by rain gauges installed at the soil surface.
29 Jan 2022
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in Malaysia
The tsunami is one of the deadliest natural disasters, responsible for more than 260,000 deaths and billions in economic losses over the last two decades. The footage of the devastating power of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami perhaps remains vivid in the memory of most survivors, and Malaysia was one of the countries affected by the unprecedented 2004 tsunami. It was the first time the Malaysian government had managed such a great disaster. A compilation of post-event observations regarding tsunami characteristics is first presented in the form of maps, followed by building damage, including damage modes of wall failure, total collapse, debris impact and tilting of structures.
25 Aug 2022
Smart clothing can be defined as the intelligent system that senses and reacts to the changes and stimuli of the environment and the wearer’s conditions, such as electrical, thermal and magnetic ones. Smart clothing has various functions (e.g., protection, temperature regulation, monitoring, entertainment, expression of personality, etc.) and embodies many features (e.g., efficient, intelligent, computable, etc.), combining cutting-edge technologies in related fields such as electronic information, sensors and materials. Smart clothing has emerged to meet consumers’ personalized needs in healthcare, work, entertainment, etc., and has rapidly become a hotspot in the clothing industry and research field. However, as smart clothing gets popular, sustainability issues are becoming increasingly prominent during its development and circulation.
19 Apr 2022
Impacts of Brick Making on Environment
The brick making industry, despite its contribution to environmental pollution, plays a major role in the economic growth of many nations, with the traditional technology accounting for a significant proportion of the total clay brick production. This writeup gives an overview of the origin of brickmaking, its socioeconomic importance, the environmental impacts and improvements made in the art of brickmaking over the years. The environmental impacts from brickmaking cannot be overruled, however, this impacts could be minimized and managed through the adoption of more sustainable and environmentally friendly firing innovative.
23 Nov 2021
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of COVID-19
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