Topic Review
Integrated Management
Integrated management is a socially defined concept that is interpreted and understood in a variety of ways.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Swisscom
Swisscom AG is a major telecommunications provider in Switzerland. Its headquarters are located at Worblaufen near Bern. The Switzerland owns 51.0 percent of Swisscom AG. According to its own published data, Swisscom holds a market share of 60% for mobile, 67% for broadband and 33% for TV telecommunication in Switzerland. Its Italian subsidiary Fastweb is attributed 16% of private clients and 29% of corporate clients share of Italian broadband and is also active in the mobile market. The Swiss telegraph network was first set up in 1852, followed by telephones in 1877. The two networks were combined with the postal service in 1920 to form the PTT (Postal Telegraph and Telephone). It struggled to develop a homegrown digital network, with the first digital exchange launched in 1986, but pioneered the NATEL A mobile service in 1978 and the GSM-based NATEL D offering a digital service in 1993. The Swiss telecommunications market was deregulated in 1997. Telecom PTT was spun off and rebranded Swisscom ahead of a partial privatisation in 1997 which has left the Swiss government with a 51% stake. Besides pioneering the first mobile telephone network NATEL A, the present-day Swisscom owns the protected brand NATEL, which is used and known only in Switzerland . 25% of Swisscom Mobile was sold to Vodafone in 2001. Since then, Swisscom has bought a majority stake in Italy's second-biggest telecom company Fastweb and invested in areas such as hospitality support, cloud services, mobile solutions and billing.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Criticisms of Neoclassical Economics
Neo-classical economics has come under critique on the basis of its core ideologies, assumptions, and other matters.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Hydrogen Planning in Poland and Germany
The use of hydrogen exists in various sectors in Poland and Germany. Hydrogen can be used in industry, transport, decarbonisation of the Polish steel industry and as one of the low-emission alternatives to the existing coal applications in this sector.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Country-of-Origin Labeling
Now repealed, Country of origin labeling (COOL) (or mCOOL [m for mandatory]) was a requirement signed into American law under Title X of the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (also known as the 2002 Farm Bill), codified at 7 U.S.C. § 1638a as Notice of country of origin. This law had required retailers to provide country-of-origin labeling for fresh beef, pork, and lamb. The program exempted processed meats. The United States Congress passed an expansion of the COOL requirements on September 29, 2008, to include more food items such as fresh fruits, nuts and vegetables. Regulations were implemented on August 1, 2008 (73 FR 45106), August 31, 2008 (73 FR 50701), and May 24, 2013 (78 FR 31367). On December 18, 2015 Congress repealed the COOL law, as a part of the omnibus budget bill because of a series of WTO rulings that prohibited labels based on country of origin.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Cancellation of Debt (COD) Income
Taxpayers in the United States may have tax consequences when debt is cancelled. This is commonly known as COD (Cancellation of Debt) Income. According to the Internal Revenue Code, the discharge of indebtedness must be included in a taxpayer's gross income. There are exceptions to this rule, however, so a careful examination of one's COD income is important to determine any potential tax consequences. Billions of dollars of cancelled debts will generate many unexpected tax bills, due to debt cancellations that financial institutions have started accelerating in 2012.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
2015–16 Stock Market Selloff
The 2015–16 stock market selloff, also known as The Great Fall of China, was the period of decline in the value of stock prices globally that occurred between June 2015 to June 2016. It included the 2015–16 Chinese stock market turbulence, in which the SSE Composite Index fell 43% in just over 2 months between June 2015 and August 2015, which culminated in the devaluation of the yuan. Investors sold shares globally as a result of slowing growth in the GDP of China, a fall in petroleum prices, the Greek debt default in June 2015, the effects of the end of quantitative easing in the United States in October 2014, a sharp rise in bond yields in early 2016, and finally, in June 2016, the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, in which Brexit was voted upon. By July 2016, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) recovered and achieved record highs. The FTSE 100 Index did not do so until later in 2016.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Minitel
The Minitel was a Videotex online service accessible through telephone lines, and is considered one of the world's most successful pre-World Wide Web online services. The service was rolled out experimentally in 1978 in Brittany and throughout France in 1982 by the PTT (Postes, Télégraphes et Téléphones; divided since 1991 between France Télécom and La Poste). From its early days, users could make online purchases, make train reservations, check stock prices, search the telephone directory, have a mail box, and chat in a similar way to what is now made possible by the Internet. In February 2009, France Télécom indicated the Minitel network still had 10 million monthly connections. France Télécom retired the service on 30 June 2012.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Low-Level Equilibrium Trap
The low-level equilibrium trap is a concept in economics developed by Richard R. Nelson, in which at low levels of per capita income people are too poor to save and invest much, and this low level of investment results in low rate of growth in national income. As per capita income rises above a certain minimum level at which there is zero saving, a rising proportion of income will be saved and invested and this will lead to higher rate of growth in income.
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  • 29 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Sustainable Drive Tourism Routes
Drive tourism (DT) has become an attractive way to visit tourism destinations for an increasing number of visitors along driving routes. This flow of visitors has made sustainability a major issue, that is, the way by which tourism development ensure economic benefits for local communities and preserves local identity, along the route, without compromising the environmental resources. Many studies focused the topic of DT, mainly the analysis of a particular angle, either be economic sustainability, e.g., advantages of the ones related to economic and environment sustainability, such as the impact of tourists along the route environment. 
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