Topic Review
Workers' Right to Access Restroom
Workers' right to access restroom refers to the rights of employees to take a break when they need to use the toilet. The right to access a toilet is a basic human need. Unless both the employee and employer agree to compensate the employee on rest breaks an employer cannot take away the worker's right to access a toilet room while working. There is limited information on the rights workers have to access public toilets among the world's legal systems. The law is not clear in New Zealand, United Kingdom , or the United States of America as to the amount of time a worker is entitled to use a toilet while working. Nor is there clarification on what constitutes a 'reasonable' amount of access to a toilet. Consequently, the lack of access to toilet facilities has become a health issue for many workers. Issues around workplace allowance to use a toilet has given light on issues such as workers having to ask permission to use a toilet and some workers having their pay deducted for the mere human right of using a toilet when they need to.
  • 91
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Work-Life Balance, Job Performance and Knowledge Risks
Despite the focus on knowledge risks in the literature, a limited number of studies have empirically examined technological knowledge risks in terms of digitalization, old technologies, and cybercrime as moderating variables in the relationship between work-life balance and job performance. To address this gap, this entry investigated the moderation effects of technological knowledge risks on the relationship between work-life balance and job performance during the pandemic period in employees of cooperative credit banks. A quantitative approach that involved gathering surveys was adopted. Applying PLS-SEM, the empirical findings revealed that technological knowledge risks have a significant impact on the relationship between work-life balance and job performance. Additionally, this research encourages managers to create and maintain a healthy work environment that promotes valuable employees’ job performance while also evaluating the use of new technological advances and their related risks.
  • 802
  • 13 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Wood Dust and Nasopharynx and Sinonasal Cancer
Millions of workers around the world are exposed to wood dust, as a by-product of woodworking. Nasopharynx cancers (NPCs) and sinonasal cancers (SNCs) are two cancers that can be caused by occupational exposure to wood dust, but there is little evidence regarding their burden in Canada. 
  • 251
  • 24 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Withholding Tax
A withholding tax, or a retention tax, is an income tax to be paid to the government by the payer of the income rather than by the recipient of the income. The tax is thus withheld or deducted from the income due to the recipient. In most jurisdictions, withholding tax applies to employment income. Many jurisdictions also require withholding tax on payments of interest or dividends. In most jurisdictions, there are additional withholding tax obligations if the recipient of the income is resident in a different jurisdiction, and in those circumstances withholding tax sometimes applies to royalties, rent or even the sale of real estate. Governments use withholding tax as a means to combat tax evasion, and sometimes impose additional withholding tax requirements if the recipient has been delinquent in filing tax returns, or in industries where tax evasion is perceived to be common. Typically the withholding tax is treated as a payment on account of the recipient's final tax liability, when the withholding is made in advance. It may be refunded if it is determined, when a tax return is filed, that the recipient's tax liability to the government which received the withholding tax is less than the tax withheld, or additional tax may be due if it is determined that the recipient's tax liability is more than the withholding tax. In some cases the withholding tax is treated as discharging the recipient's tax liability, and no tax return or additional tax is required. Such withholding is known as final withholding. The amount of withholding tax on income payments other than employment income is usually a fixed percentage. In the case of employment income the amount of withholding tax is often based on an estimate of the employee's final tax liability, determined either by the employee or by the government.
  • 72
  • 26 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Wine Tourism
Nowadays, wine has become an important beverage that is increasingly being consumed more frequently all over the world, and its production and marketing has received increasing attention from consumers, specialists, and producers. As a result, the growing importance of wine tourism for many destinations and the role of this type of tourism in supporting local economies is now beginning to be understood. It has also been highlighted that wine tourism can play a significant role in the development of tourism by contributing to the economic and social support of local regions and communities. Wine is one of the ingredients of people's journeys, and journeys dedicated to wine-producing areas have led to the tourism product known as wine tourism.
  • 1402
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Wine Cooperatives in Germany
According to the German cooperative law, cooperatives are defined as “associations of a non-closed number of members whose purpose is to promote their members’ income and business or their social or cultural interests through joint business operations” (GenG §1). In Germany, the following actors can become members of a cooperative: physical persons, commercial partnerships (in German: Personengesellschaften des Handelsrechts), legal entities under private and public law. Cooperatives represent a horizontal cooperation among producers.
  • 289
  • 25 Nov 2021
Topic Review
William Jennings Bryan Presidential Campaign, 1896
In 1896, William Jennings Bryan ran unsuccessfully for President of the United States. Bryan, a former Democratic congressman from Nebraska, gained his party's presidential nomination in July of that year after electrifying the Democratic National Convention with his Cross of Gold speech. He was defeated in the general election by the Republican candidate, former Ohio governor William McKinley. Born in 1860, Bryan grew up in rural Illinois and in 1887 moved to Nebraska, where he practiced law and entered politics. He won election to the House of Representatives in 1890, and was re-elected in 1892, before mounting an unsuccessful US Senate run. He set his sights on higher office, believing he could be elected president in 1896 even though he remained a relatively minor figure in the Democratic Party. In anticipation of a presidential campaign, he spent much of 1895 and early 1896 making speeches across the United States; his compelling oratory increased his popularity in his party. Bryan often spoke on the issue of the currency. The economic Panic of 1893 had left the nation in a deep recession, which still persisted in early 1896. Bryan and many other Democrats believed the economic malaise could be remedied through a return to bimetallism, or free silver—a policy they believed would inflate the currency and make it easier for debtors to repay loans. Bryan went to the Democratic convention in Chicago as an undeclared candidate, whom the press had given only a small chance of becoming the Democratic nominee. His 'Cross of Gold' speech, given to conclude the debate on the party platform, immediately transformed him into a favorite for the nomination, and he won it the next day. The Democrats nominated Arthur Sewall, a wealthy Maine banker and shipbuilder, for vice president. The left-wing Populist Party (which had hoped to nominate the only silver-supporting candidate) endorsed Bryan for president, but found Sewall unacceptable, substituting Thomas E. Watson of Georgia. Abandoned by many gold-supporting party leaders and newspapers after the Chicago convention, Bryan undertook an extensive tour by rail to bring his campaign to the people. He spoke some 600 times, to an estimated 5,000,000 listeners. His campaign focused on silver, an issue that failed to appeal to the urban voter, and he was defeated. The 1896 race is generally seen as a realigning election. The coalition of wealthy, middle-class and urban voters that defeated Bryan kept the Republicans in power for most of the time until 1932. Although defeated in the election, Bryan's campaign made him a national figure, which he remained until his death in 1925.
  • 36
  • 26 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Why Is Airline Food Dreadful?
       Food waste generated on flights is emerging as an issue in the aviation industry. Passengers are pivotal actors in airline food consumption and responsible for their unsustainable actions towards the in-flight catering process. This research investigated factors affecting passengers’ food wasting behaviour by conducting an in-depth survey.
  • 621
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
What Does Vietnam Gain When Its Currency Depreciates?
A depreciating currency theoretically supports exports. A weak currency means that domestic goods are cheaper abroad. Therefore, it increases both exports and stock prices, as more businesses raise their capital through the securities market, pushing up the stock price.   
  • 146
  • 09 Dec 2021
Topic Review
WebSphere Commerce
IBM WebSphere Commerce also known as WCS (WebSphere Commerce Suite) is a software platform framework for e-commerce, including marketing, sales, customer and order processing functionality in a tailorable, integrated package. It is a single, unified platform which offers the ability to do business directly with consumers (B2C), with businesses (B2B), indirectly through channel partners (indirect business models), or all of these simultaneously. WebSphere Commerce is a customizable, scalable and high availability solution built on the Java - Java EE platform using open standards, such as XML, and Web services. IBM WebSphere Commerce is sometimes referred to as WCS, however this abbreviation was originally used as a reference to the platform when it was named WebSphere Commerce Suite. Use of the abbreviation continued with users and solution implementers after the platform was renamed to WebSphere Commerce with the announcement of WebSphere Commerce V5.4.
  • 115
  • 19 Oct 2022
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