Topic Review
Investment in Tourism Infrastructure Development
Investment in tourism infrastructure includes investment in components such as transport and communications infrastructure, the hotel and restaurant industry, and recreation facilities... Investment in tourism infrastructure development to make destinations and services increasingly attractive is considered a key measure in developing a country’s tourist destinations. It has a strong and positive impact on visitor attraction. 
  • 3182
  • 18 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Emerging Technologies
According to G. Veletsianos, from a general point of view, an emerging technology is “a new tool with promising potential”. However, an emerging technology is generally defined according to the field in which it is analyzed. B.R. Martin describes an emerging technology as a technology the use of which will benefit many sectors of the economy and/or society. Other important characteristics of emerging technology, according to D. Rotolo, D. Hicks and B. R. Martin, include radical novelty, relatively fast growth, coherence, and prominent impact. Which refers to the crucial following contexts: aspect of future time, anticipation, uncertainty and Industry 4.0. the following definition of an emerging technology has been created by the author – „Emerging technology in Industry 4.0 is a technology the development of which, from today’s point of view, is uncertain and not obvious, but through complex anticipatory research, it is possible to identify its potential radical impact in selected areas, e.g., social, technological, economic, scientific.”
  • 2790
  • 10 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Banking Sector
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) extends the responsibility of companies beyond the interest of their owners to other stakeholder groups (including employees, customers, regulators, and community), highlighting the necessity to internalize the impact of business activities on the natural environment and the society. CSR is inevitably becoming an increasingly important part of almost every business. This is particularly true for the banking industry, which suffered substantial losses in reputation and public trust in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Not surprisingly therefore, banks around the world have visibly intensified their CSR efforts.
  • 2747
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Food Marketing
It would seem important to analyse the relationships between food marketing and consumer choice, highlighting the role of brands in these frameworks. For this purpose, a literature review was carried out considering 147 documents from Scopus database for the topics of search “food marketing” and“choices” (search performed on 16 October 2020). As main insights, it is worth highlighting that the main issues addressed by the literature, concerning food marketing and consumer choices, are the following: economic theory; label and packaging; marketing strategies; agriculture and food industry; market segments; social dimensions; brand and branding. In turn, food marketing heavily conditions consumer choices; however, these related instruments are better manipulated by larger companies. In addition, this entry highlights that bigger companies have dominant positions in these markets which are not always beneficial to the consumers’ objectives.
  • 2699
  • 07 May 2021
Topic Review
An Analysis of the Board of Directors Composition
Abstract:   Purpose: The objectives of this study were to analyse certain aspects of the Board composition of Maltese listed companies (MLCs), namely Board size, independence, expertise, gender diversity and the chairperson/CEO links, and  how these may be improved. Design/Approach/Methodology: The study was designed around a qualitative approach of data collection. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen participants, consisting of fourteen company secretaries of MLCs, a representative of the Maltese regulator, a corporate advisor and a corporate lawyer. Findings: The nomination and appointment process of directors in MLCs relies mainly on networking, with a tendency to continuously appoint the same tried network of directors. This creates a barrier towards new talent being introduced into boardrooms. A general disagreement also persists as to what constitutes a truly independent Board member. Practical Implications: Practical experience often supplants academic qualifications when nominating and appointing directors. Moreover, female representation on the Boards of MLCs is still lacking. Notwithstanding the fact that the importance of having separate chairperson/CEO roles is acknowledged, there is likely to be strong resistance to any law rendering this mandatory.   Originality/Value: Studies relating to the composition of the Board of Directors in smaller states such as the island state of Malta are infrequent. This paper provides information that is of particular value to listed companies in smaller states and their stakeholders, including regulators and sheds more light on the priniciple of proportionailty when dealing with requirements imposed by the authorities.
  • 2573
  • 13 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Performance Evaluation of the Board of Directors
Abstract:   Purpose: The objectives of this paper are to analyse both individual and overall performance evaluations of the Board of Directors as carried out by Maltese Listed Companies (MLCs) and to assess the importance of such board evaluations to small shareholders. Design/Approach/Methodology: The study was designed around semi-structured interviews with fifteen MLC representatives and seven stockbrokers, as well as questionnaires administered to twenty-nine small shareholders. Findings: The findings indicate that, while Boards of Director evaluations are carried out in MLCs, they lack the necessary formal structures that specify critical evaluation measures. Thus one may infer that those charged with the responsibility of conducting evaluations are not being well determined. By departing from the recommendations of the Maltese Corporate Governance Code on performance evaluations, MLCs have generally opted to resort to an inward and more restricted style of evaluation, doing away with external or independent parties in the process.   Practical Implications: Recommendations include the promotion of shareholder interest by enhancing their awareness of the benefits they will stand to gain from the process and by involving them more in the process. Originality/Value: The paper considers possible evaluation measures that may be aimed to enhance both shareholder and public confidence in the exercise and also other ways by which it may be improved. It thus contributes to the literature, as yet scarce, which relates to corporate governance in small states.   Keywords: Performance evaluation, corporate governance, board of directors, MLCs.   JEL code: G34. Paper type: Research article.
  • 2394
  • 28 May 2020
Topic Review
Factors Affecting Consumer Food Choice
Understanding individual food choices is critical for transforming the current food system to ensure healthiness of people and sustainability of the planet. Throughout the years, researchers from different fields have proposed conceptual models addressing factors influencing the food choice, recognized as a key leverage to improve planetary and human health. However, a multidisciplinary approach is needed to better understand how different factors are involved and interact with each other in the decision-making process. The present paper reviews and analyzes existing models, providing an intact point-of-view by integrating key elements into a bigger framework. Key determinants of general food choice are identified and categorized, including food-internal factor (sensory and perceptual features), food-external factors (information, social environment, physical environment), personal-state factors (biological features and physiological needs, psychological components, habits and experiences), cognitive factors (knowledge and skills, attitude, liking and preference, anticipated consequences, and personal identity), as well as sociocultural factors (culture, economic variables, political elements). Moreover, possible directions of influence among the factors towards final food choice were discussed. The need of multidisciplinary impulses across research field with the support of empirical data are crucial for understanding factors influencing food choice as well as for enriching existing conceptual models. The framework proposed here would serve as a roadmap for facilitating communications and collaborations between research fields in a structural and systematic way.
  • 2302
  • 06 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Technological Innovation and Economic Growth
Economic growth is a tool for measuring the development and progress of countries, and technological innovation is one of the factors affecting economic growth and contributes to the development and modernization of production methods. Therefore, technological innovation is the main driver for economic growth and human progress. Spending on innovation, research and development as well as investment in innovation supports competition and progress. Accordingly, sustainable economic growth is achieved. This ensures the preservation of resources for future generations and the achievement of economic and social growth. Moreover, a sustainable educational level of the workforce, investment in research, creation of new products, and investor access to stock markets will be ensured through the development of the public and private sectors and the improvement of people’s living conditions.
  • 2164
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Sustainability Accounting
Sustainability accounting is expanding in the academic context and business practice. It has different meanings but few definitions, and this demonstrates a lack of conceptualization in this regard. The concept is often used as a synonymous of environmental accounting, social accounting, or non-financial accounting. According to Zvezdov and Schaltegger (2013), it “entails systems, methods, and processes of creating sustainability information for transparency, accountability, and decision-making purposes. This includes the identification of relevant sustainability issues of the company, the definition of indicators and measures, data collection, overall performance tracking and measurement, as well as the communication with […] internal and external information recipients.
  • 2104
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Customer Centricity
Firms are increasingly organized around the client. At the same time, there is customer pressure on green and sustainable organizations. This entry joint this two stand points in a sustainable view.
  • 1933
  • 27 Oct 2020
  • Page
  • of
  • 114