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Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases
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Submitted by: Attila Frigy
Interatrial block associated with atrial arrhythmias, mainly atrial fibrillation, define the Bayés’ Syndrome (called after Bayés de Luna, a proeminent cardiologist, who published the seminal paper about the problem of P-wave anomalies and interatrial blocks). Finding the signs of interatrial block on ECG represents a call for active screening of atrial fibrillation and starting of prophylactic anticoagulation in selected patients.  
Submitted by: Ali Zolfagharian
In our unique transdisciplinary approach, we studied the fundamentals of blood pressure and examined its measuring modalities while focusing on their clinical use and sensing principles to identify material functionalities. Then, we carefully reviewed various categories of functional materials utilized in sensor building blocks allowing for comparative analysis of the performance of a wide range of materials throughout the sensor operational-life cycle. Not only this provides essential data to enhance the materials’ properties and optimize their performance, but also, it highlights new perspectives and provides suggestions to develop the next generation pressure sensors for clinical use.
Submitted by: Nour-Mounira Bakkar
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is one of the earliest manifestations of type 2 diabetes (T2D). It constitutes the major cause of silent cardiovascular events in patients without overt cardiac disease. The high prevalence of CAN in patients newly diagnosed with T2D suggests that its pathophysiology is rooted in an earlier stage of metabolic derangement, possibly being prediabetes.
Submitted by: Leonidas Raftopoulos
Cardiac masses are space occupying lesions within the cardiac cavities or adjacent to the pericardium. They include frequently diagnosed clinical entities such as clots and vegetations, common benign tumors such as myxomas and papillary fibroelastomas and uncommon benign or malignant primary or metastatic tumors. Given their diversity, there are no guidelines or consensus statements regarding the best diagnostic or therapeutic approach. In the past, diagnosis used to be made by the histological specimens after surgery or during the post-mortem examination. Nevertheless, evolution and increased availability of cardiovascular imaging modalities has enabled better characterization of the masses and the surrounding tissue. Transthoracic echocardiography using contrast agents can evaluate the location, the morphology and the perfusion of the mass as well as its hemodynamic effect. Transesophageal echocardiography has increased spatial and temporal resolution; hence it is superior in depicting small highly mobile masses. Cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography are complementary providing tissue characterization. The scope of this review is to present the role of cardiovascular imaging in the differential diagnosis of cardiac masses and to propose a step-wise diagnostic algorithm, taking into account the epidemiology and clinical presentation of the cardiac masses, as well as the availability and the incremental value of each imaging modality.
Submitted by: Elvira Parrotta
This entry provides an update on previous and current research in the field of Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), a class of disorders affecting the heart or blood vessels. Despite progress in clinical research and therapy, CVDs still represent the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The hallmarks of cardiac diseases include inflammation, fibrosis, scar tissue, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, abnormal ventricular remodeling, and cardiomyocyte death, which is an irreversible process that induces heart failure with progressive and dramatic consequences. Both genetic and environmental factors pathologically contribute to the development of CVDs, but the precise causes that trigger cardiac diseases and their progression are still largely unknown. In this scenario, the possibility to generate patient-specific cardiac cells from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represents a powerful platform for the investigation of these life-threatening disorders.
Submitted by: Neftalí Ochoa-Alejo
Chili pepper is a prominent cultivated horticultural crop that is traditionally used for food seasoning and is applied for the treatment and prevention of multiple diseases. Its beneficial health properties are due to its abundance and variety of bioactive components, such as carotenoids, capsaicinoids, and vitamins. In particular, carotenoids have important nutraceutical properties, and several studies have focused on their potential in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.
Submitted by: George Makavos
Echocardiography, including transthoracic two and three-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler imaging, myocardial deformation and transesophageal echo, is an established and widely available imaging technique for the identification of cardiovascular manifestations that are crucial for prognosis in rheumatic diseases. Echocardiography is also important for monitoring the impact of drug treatment on cardiac function, coronary microcirculatory function, valvular function and pulmonary artery pressures. 
Submitted by: Abd-Elgawad Radi
Over the last few decades, aptamers have attracted a lot of interest in the biosensor industry, because they are the next generation of target receptors that can replace antibody functions. SELEX is an automated procedure and needs only a few days to evolve some binders. This is much shorter compared to antibody selection, which often requires several months. Aptamers can even differentiate the chirality of a molecule and its secondary structure. Aptamers can choose any types of targets with no restrictions. The antibodies undergo permanent degradation, while aptamers can undergo several cycles of denaturation/regeneration. DNA aptamers are acceptable for the design of reusable aptamer detectors, while RNA aptamers can be single-dimensional. The use of aptamers is not limited to specific areas and can be used as recognition molecules in almost any domain. The main limitation is the degradation of RNAs aptamer by ribonuclease. These problems can be solved by modifying RNA aptamers. Another limitation is that the microenvironment will affect the structure of the aptamer and the interactions with the ligand-target. Moreover, the composition of salts has a significant effect on aptamer configuration. The integration of aptamers into detection platforms such as microfluidics and paper-based analytical devices and lab-on-a-chip (LOC) areas for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis is becoming increasingly popular. Aptamer-based detection systems meet most POC diagnostic requirements.
Submitted by: Adriana Georgescu
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells found in relatively high percentages in the adipose tissue and able to self-renew and differentiate into many different types of cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), small membrane vesicular structures released during cell activation, senescence, or apoptosis, act as mediators for long distance communication between cells, transferring their specific bioactive molecules into host target cells.  Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are mainly caused by abnormal adipose tissue size, distribution and metabolism and so ADSCs and their secretory factors such as EVs are currently investigated as therapeutics in these diseases. Here we provide a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge on EVs secreted from ADSCs both as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics in diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease, the molecular mechanisms involved, as well as on the use of ADSC differentiation potential in cardiovascular tissue repair and prostheses.
Submitted by: Valeria Blanda
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) belongs to a lectin family, acting as a galactoside-binding protein involved in many biological processes, such as controlling cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, pre-mRNA splicing, immunity and inflammation.
Submitted by: Ana Paula Silva
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is estimated to affect more than 10% of the global population and represents an increasing health and economic burden for the society. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most important complication of CKD and the primary cause of death in these patients. Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD), which is a common complication of CKD patients, involves changes in mineral ion homeostasis, bone quality and turnover, cardiovascular and soft tissue calcifications, highly contributing for cardiovascular outcomes. Vascular calcification (VC) is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. New diagnostic/prognostic tools are required for early detection of VC allowing interventional strategies. Gla-rich protein (GRP) is a cardiovascular calcification inhibitor, whose clinical utility still remained unknown. The present clinical study including a cohort of 80 diabetic patients with mild to moderate CKD (stages 2–4) explored, for the first time, correlations between levels of GRP in serum with CKD developmental stage, mineral metabolism markers, VC and pulse pressure (PP). The results shown an association between GRP, renal dysfunction and CKD-MBD. The relationship between low levels of GRP and vascular calcifications suggests a potential clinical utility for GRP as an early marker of vascular damage in CKD.
Submitted by: Eduardo Pena
Under hypobaric hypoxia contidition, the principal impact on humans is due to the low atmospheric pressure  and the subsequent proportional decrease in partial oxygen pressure (PO2)  in the inspired air, generating a reduction in the bioavailability of oxygen in organs, tissues and cells at high altitude.
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