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Wastewater Treatment
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Alkylimidazoles have good complexing properties, also they are  cheap so can be successfully used in the separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions.
Submitted by: Letlhogonolo Selaledi
The utilization of antibiotics in feed has been reevaluated since bacterial pathogens have established and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. Multiple countries have introduced bans or severe restrictions on the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics. Since the use of antibiotics may have a positive influence on poultry performance, excessive use as growth promoters harms human health. This has therefore warranted the urgent need for alternatives.
Submitted by: Setyo Budi Kurniawan
The utilization of metal-based conventional coagulants/flocculants to remove suspended solids from drinking water and wastewater is currently leading to new concerns. Alarming issues related to the prolonged effects on human health and further pollution to aquatic environments from the generated nonbiodegradable sludge are becoming trending topics. The utilization of biocoagulants/bioflocculants does not produce chemical residue in the effluent and creates nonharmful, biodegradable sludge.
Submitted by: Aneta Kowalska
Biowastes refer to the biodegradable food residues from private household and food industry, garden industry, municipal wastes, and sewage sludge.
Submitted by: Pei Sean Goh
Forward osmosis (FO), the most common osmotically driven membrane process, stands out as the most promising alternative for RO processes due to its inherently low fouling tendency, easier fouling removal, and energy efficiency when compared to pressure-driven–type membrane processes.
Submitted by: JUN WOO PARK
Plastics are broken down to microplastics (MPs), which are <5 mm in size. There are two types of MPs—primary MPs that are intentionally manufactured (detergent) and secondary MPs that are generated via mechanical collision, biodegradation, and photo-oxidative degradation of primary MPs. Both types of MPs carry toxic organic pollutants and heavy metals, since they have large surface areas and strong hydrophobicity. Microplastic (MP)-based contaminants in the environment are pervasive, but standard technologies used for MP identification have not yet been reported. Human beings take up MPs from the environmental ecosystem through the food chain without any particular purification. MPs can penetrate into capillaries from the bloodstream, resulting in endocrine system disorders or toxicity.In this review, we introduced several technologies, such as filtration using membranes, biological degradation, electrocoagulation, and removal using nanoparticles, used for the purification of MPs or related contaminants. Current studies of identification methods of MPs and evaluation tests of MPs exposure-based harmfulness in vitro and in vivo were summarized.
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Submitted by: Athanasia Tolkou
Groundwater is commonly used as a drinking water resource all over the world. Therefore, groundwater contamination by toxic metals is an important issue of utmost concern for public health, and several technologies are applied for their effective removal, such as coagulation, ion exchange, adsorption, and membrane applications like reverse osmosis. Adsorption is acknowledged as a simple, effective and economic technology, which has received increased interest recently, despite certain limitations regarding operational applications. The respective scientific efforts have been specifically focused on the development and implementation of novel nano-structured adsorbent materials, which may offer extensive specific surface areas, much higher than the conventional adsorbents, and hence, are expected to present higher removal efficiencies of pollutants. In this paper, the recent developments of nanomaterial applications for uranium removal from groundwaters are critically reviewed. Particularly, the use of novel composite materials, based mainly on hybrid metallic oxide nanoparticles and on composites based on graphene oxide (GO) (i.e., graphene-based hybrids), showed promising evidences to achieve efficient removal of toxic metals from water sources, even in full scale applications.
Submitted by: Marco Carnevale Miino
Similar to other types of waste, sewage sludge (SS) must be minimized, not only to respect the European Directive 2018/851 on waste, but also because the cost of sludge management is approximately 50% of the total running costs of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Usually, minimization technologies can involve sewage sludge production with three different strategies: (i) adopting a process in the water line that reduces the production of sludge; (ii) reducing the water content (dewatering processes) or (iii) reducing the fraction of volatile solids (stabilization).