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Peptides for Health Benefits
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Submitted by: Van-An Duong
Three-dimensional liquid chromatography (3D-LC) is the consecutive combination of 3 independent LC techniques to decrease the complexity of proteome digest samples. 3D-LC systems can be performed in an online or offline manner. Ideally, each dimension in a 3D-LC system is completely orthogonal to the others.
Submitted by: Zsolt Preisz
Methotrexate (4-{N-[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl) methyl]-N-methylamino} benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid, MTX) is an antimetabolite drug. It is widely used as a chemotherapeutic agent in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis and some sorts of leukemia. MTX is a relatively well-known molecule and is a first-line antirheumatic medication because of its efficacy and safety. It decreases the concentration of tetrahydrofolate (THF) in the cells by the inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme, therefore it reduces the purine nucleotide and DNA synthesis.
Submitted by: Viorica Patrulea
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs), are found in bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They typically consist of 10–50 amino acid residues (very rarely up to 100 amino acids) and generally possess cationic (net charge ranging from −4 to +20) and amphipathic structures. 
Submitted by: ROHIT KUMAR
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are the arsenals of the innate host defense system, exhibiting evolutionarily conserved characteristics that are present in practically all forms of life. Recent years have witnessed the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria compounded with a slow discovery rate for new antibiotics that have necessitated scientific efforts to search for alternatives to antibiotics. Research on the identification of AMPs has generated very encouraging evidence that they curb infectious pathologies and are also useful as novel biologics to function as immunotherapeutic agents. Being innate, they exhibit the least cytotoxicity to the host and exerts a wide spectrum of biological activity including low resistance among microbes and increased wound healing actions. Notably, in veterinary science, the constant practice of massive doses of antibiotics with inappropriate withdrawal programs led to a high risk of livestock-associated antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, the world faces tremendous pressure for designing and devising strategies to mitigate the use of antibiotics in animals and keep it safe for posterity.
Submitted by: Silvia Gazzin
Bilirubin is a yellow endogenous derivate of the heme catabolism. Since the 1980s, it has been recognized as one of the most potent antioxidants in nature, able to counteract 10,000× higher intracellular concentrations of H2O2. In the recent years, not only bilirubin, but also its precursor biliverdin, and the enzymes involved in their productions (namely heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase; altogether the "yellow players"-YPs) have been recognized playing a protective role in diseases characterized by a chronic prooxidant status. 
Submitted by: Manlio Tolomeo
CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) constitute a family of transcription factors composed of six members that are critical for normal cellular differentiation in a variety of tissues. They promote the expression of genes through interaction with their promoters. Moreover, they have a key role in regulating cellular proliferation through interaction with cell cycle proteins. C/EBPs are considered to be tumor suppressor factors due to their ability to arrest cell growth (contributing to the terminal differentiation of several cell types) and for their role in cellular response to DNA damage, nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, and genotoxic agents. However, C/EBPs can elicit completely opposite effects on cell proliferation and cancer development and they have been described as both tumor promoters and tumor suppressors. 
Submitted by: Anne-Catherine Prats
A new RNA family has emerged, circular RNAs (circRNAs), generated by a process of backsplicing. CircRNAs have a strong impact on gene expression via their sponge function, and form a new mRNA family revealing the pivotal role of 5′ end-independent translation. CircRNAs are translated into proteins impacting various pathologies including cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, and are key players in aging.  RNA circle translation also provides many perspectives for biotechnological and therapeutic applications. 
Submitted by: Verónica Rojas
Cyanobacteria and microalgae are oxygen-producing photosynthetic unicellular organisms encompassing a great diversity of species, which are able to grow under all types of extreme environments and exposed to a wide variety of predators and microbial pathogens. The antibacterial compounds described for these organisms include organic compounds such as  alkaloids, fatty acids, indoles, macrolides, phenols, pigments and terpenes, among others, but the peptides have an special pharmacological appeal, due to their broad chemical space, achieved by their dual biosynthetic alternatives in cyanobacteria, the ribosomal synthesis, or a polypeptide assembly through the non-ribosomal peptide synthases. This diversity ensures a broad range of biological properties with a large pharmacological potential.   
Submitted by: Youri Pavlov
Recent studies on tumor genomes revealed that mutations in genes of replicative DNA polymerases cause a predisposition for cancer by increasing genome instability. The past 10 years have uncovered exciting details about the structure and function of replicative DNA polymerases and the replication fork organization. The principal idea of participation of different polymerases in specific transactions at the fork proposed by Morrison and coauthors 30 years ago and later named “division of labor,” remains standing, with an amendment of the broader role of polymerase δ in the replication of both the lagging and leading DNA strands. However, cancer-associated mutations predominantly affect the catalytic subunit of polymerase ε that participates in leading strand DNA synthesis. 
Submitted by: Diego Centonze
       Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and its pathophysiology is characterized by a progressive blood-brain barrier dysfunction accompanied by infiltration in the central nervous system of peripheral pathogenic immune cells and inflammatory mediators leading to demyelination, axonal damage, and dysfunction and/or loss of synapses. Accumulating evidence highlights blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) as potential biomarkers of MS disease stages and of response to treatment. In particular, EVs released from blood–brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells, platelets, leukocytes, myeloid cells, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of MS and of its rodent model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Further research is necessary to validate these observations and the screening of specific EVs subsets based on their cargo and membrane compositions associated to specific MS pathophysiological mechanisms might help guiding MS diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. 
Submitted by: Ping GENG
Grifola frondosa (G. frondosa) is a Basidiomycetes fungus that belongs to the family of Grifolaceae and the order of Polyporales.
Submitted by: Aiah El-Rashidy
Abstract Dentin–pulp complex is a term which refers to the dental pulp (DP) surrounded by dentin along its peripheries. Dentin and dental pulp are highly specialized tissues, which can be affected by various insults, primarily by dental caries. Regeneration of the dentin–pulp complex is of paramount importance to regain tooth vitality. The regenerative endodontic procedure (REP) is a relatively current approach, which aims to regenerate the dentin–pulp complex through stimulating the differentiation of resident or transplanted stem/progenitor cells. Hydrogel-based scaffolds are a unique category of three dimensional polymeric networks with high water content. They are hydrophilic, biocompatible, with tunable degradation patterns and mechanical properties, in addition to the ability to be loaded with various bioactive molecules. Furthermore, hydrogels have a considerable degree of flexibility and elasticity, mimicking the cell extracellular matrix (ECM), particularly that of the DP. The current review presents how for dentin–pulp complex regeneration, the application of injectable hydrogels combined with stem/progenitor cells could represent a promising approach. According to the source of the polymeric chain forming the hydrogel, they can be classified into natural, synthetic or hybrid hydrogels, combining natural and synthetic ones. Natural polymers are bioactive, highly biocompatible, and biodegradable by naturally occurring enzymes or via hydrolysis. On the other hand, synthetic polymers offer tunable mechanical properties, thermostability and durability as compared to natural hydrogels. Hybrid hydrogels combine the benefits of synthetic and natural polymers. Hydrogels can be biofunctionalized with cell-binding sequences as arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD), can be used for local delivery of bioactive molecules and cellularized with stem cells for dentin–pulp regeneration. Formulating a hydrogel scaffold material fulfilling the required criteria in regenerative endodontics is still an area of active research, which shows promising potential for replacing conventional endodontic treatments in the near future.
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