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The aging of the world population leads to a constant increase of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Treatment of late-stage tumors has become a significant burden on the healthcare system globally. Adoptive cell immunotherapy is supposed to prolong life with cancer and ideally cure cancer after a single infusion of the cell product. Arguably, the most impressive clinical therapy in this field is based on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells capable of curing up to 25–50% of previously incurable patients with B-cell malignancies. Diverse cell therapies are already efficiently used in clinics for cancer treatment (such as tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, transgenic αβ T-cells) and several novel promising cell therapies are in development (such as CAR M-cells, transgenic γδ T-cells, CAR NK-cells). Here, we summarize the recent literature data with the focus on T-cell receptor-based therapies and overview the most advanced systems for manufacturing of clinical grade cell products.
Chitosan (CS) has been widely used as a surface coating for metal nanoparticles. CS can work as a reducing agent, a shape director, or a size-controllable agent in the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The previous studies have shown that functionalizing the surface of metal nanoparticles by CS can offer many advantages, including improving physicochemical stability, a drug carrier, controlling drug release, promoting muco-adhesiveness and tissue penetration, encouraging cell interactions, and enhancing antimicrobial effects.
The Artemisia species, often known collectively as "wormwood" are herbs and shrubs, which could be perennial, biennial and annual plants, distributed on all continents except Antarctica, mainly on Northern Hemisphere, with only 25 species on the Southern Hemisphere, being the Asian the zone where higher species diversity is concentrated. The use of Artemisia species in traditional medicine is well-documented and demonstrates the great ethnopharmacological value of this genus. In addition to the traditional medicine applications, Artemisia species exhibit high food value since many of them are species used in culinary as a food, spices, condiments and beverages flavoring.
Endolysins are phage-encoded enzymes utilized by mature phage virions to hydrolyze the cell wall from within. There is significant evidence that proves the ability of endolysins to degrade the peptidoglycan externally without the assistance of phage. Thus, their incorporation in therapeutic strategies has opened new options for therapeutic application against bacterial infections in the human and veterinary sectors, as well as within the agricultural and biotechnology sectors. While endolysins show promising results within the laboratory, it is important to document their resistance, safety, and immunogenicity for in-vivo application.
Fermented soybean paste is an indigenous food for use in cooking in East and Southeast Asia. Korea developed and used its traditional fermented foods two thousand years ago. Chungkookjang has unique characteristics such as short-term fermentation (24–72 h) without salt, and fermentation mostly with Bacilli. Traditionally fermented chungkookjang (TFC) is whole cooked soybeans that are fermented predominantly by Bacillus species. However, Bacillus species are different in the environment according to the regions and seasons due to the specific bacteria. Bacillus species differently contribute to the bioactive components of chungkookjang, resulting in different functionalities.
The pharmaceutical use of bacteriophages as safe and inexpensive therapeutic tools is collecting renewed interest. The use of lytic phages to fight antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains is pursued in academic and industrial projects and is the object of several clinical trials. On the other hand, filamentous bacteriophages used for the phage display technology can also have diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Filamentous bacteriophages are nature-made nanoparticles useful for their size, the capability to enter blood vessels, and the capacity of high-density antigen expression. In the last decades, filamentous bacteriophage ‘fd’ was employed as antigen delivery system, able to trigger all arms of the immune response, with particular emphasis on the ability of the MHC class I restricted antigenic determinants displayed on phages to induce strong and protective cytotoxic responses.Moreover, fd bacteriophages, engineered to target mouse dendritic cells (DCs), activate innate and adaptive responses without the need of exogenous adjuvants, and more recently was employed for the display of immunologically active lipids.
Biosimilar medicines support the sustainability of national healthcare systems, by reducing costs of biological therapies through increased competition. However, their adoption into clinical practice largely depends on the acceptance of healthcare providers and patients. Patients are different from health care professionals (HCPs), who are informing themselves professionally. For patients, the biosimilar debate only becomes actual when they are confronted with disease and drug choices.
Curcumin is a principal bioactive phenolic compound of the spice turmeric, in regard to various human and animal herpesvirus infections and inflammation connected with these diseases. Curcumin was explored with potent antiherpetic actions against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, human cytomegalovirus, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein–Barr virus, bovine herpesvirus 1, and pseudorabies virus.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) works through the photoactivation of a specific photosensitizer (PS) in a tumor in the presence of oxygen. PDT is widely applied in oncology to treat various cancers as it has a minimally invasive procedure and high selectivity, does not interfere with other treatments, and can be repeated as needed. A large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and singlet oxygen is generated in a cancer cell during PDT, which destroys the tumor effectively. However, the efficacy of PDT in treating a deep-seated tumor is limited due to three main reasons: Limited light penetration depth, the low oxygen concentration in the hypoxic core, and poor PS accumulation inside a tumor. Thus, PDT treatments are only approved for superficial and thin tumors. With the advancement of nanotechnology, PDT to treat deep-seated or thick tumors is becoming a reachable goal. In this review, we provide an update on the strategies for improving PDT with nanomedicine using different sophisticated-design nanoparticles, including two-photon excitation, X-ray activation, targeting tumor cells with surface modification, alteration of tumor cell metabolism pathways, the release of therapeutic gases, improvement of tumor hypoxia, and stimulation of host immunity.
Some issues in pharmaceutical therapies such as instability, poor membrane permeability, and bi-oavailability of drugs can be solved by the design of suitable delivery systems based on the com-bination of two pillar classes of ingredients: polymers and lipids. At the same time, modern tech-nologies are required to overcome production limitations (low productivity, high energy con-sumption, expensive setup, long process times) to pass at the industrial level.
Recent advances in nanotechnology have forced the obtaining of new materials with multiple functionalities. Due to their reduced dimensions, nanomaterials exhibit outstanding physio-chemical functionalities: increased absorption and reactivity, higher surface area, molar extinction coefficients, tunable plasmonic properties, quantum effects, and magnetic and photo properties. However, in the biomedical field, it is still difficult to use tools made of nanomaterials for better therapeutics due to their limitations (including non-biocompatible, poor photostabilities, low targeting capacity, rapid renal clearance, side effects on other organs, insufficient cellular uptake, and small blood retention), so other types with controlled abilities must be developed, called “smart” nanomaterials.
Imaging biomarkers play a key role in the identification of biological particularities within tumours and therefore are an important component of treatment personalisation in radiotherapy. Imaging techniques such as PET, SPECT, MRI that employ tumour-specific biomarkers already play a critical role in patient stratification towards individualized treatment.