Aging and Public Health (44)
Androgen Receptor in Health and Disease (2)
Asian Religion (3)
Atherosclerosis and Atherosclerotic Diseases (1)
Autophagy and Cancer (5)
Chemical Bond (8)
Depression and treatment (1)
Extraction Techniques in Sample Preparation (15)
Gastrointestinal Disease (36)
Hypertension and Cardiovascular Diseases (28)
Molecules of the Week (9)
Neuronal Degeneration (4)
Nitric Oxide: Physiology, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Applications (14)
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (10)
Organic Synthesis (23)
Peptides for Health Benefits (29)
Remote Sensing Data Fusion (20)
Retinal Disease and Metabolism (4)
Skin Pathologies (3)
Society 5.0 (37)
Tight Junction and Its Proteins (2)
Wastewater Treatment (12)
Calcium (Ca2+) is a major second messenger in cells and is essential for the fate and survival of all higher organisms. Different Ca2+ channels, pumps, or exchangers regulate variations in the duration and levels of intracellular Ca2+, which may be transient or sustained. These changes are then decoded by an elaborate toolkit of Ca2+-sensors, which translate Ca2+ signal to intracellular operational cell machinery, thereby regulating numerous Ca2+-dependent physiological processes. Alterations to Ca2+ homoeostasis and signaling are often deleterious and are associated with certain pathological states, including cancer. Altered Ca2+ transmission has been implicated in a variety of processes fundamental for the uncontrolled proliferation and invasiveness of tumor cells and other processes important for cancer progression, such as the development of resistance to cancer therapies.
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common form of primary malignant brain tumor with a devastatingly poor prognosis. The disease does not discriminate, affecting adults and children of both sexes, and has an average overall survival of 12–15 months, despite advances in diagnosis and rigorous treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgical resection. In addition, most survivors will eventually experience tumor recurrence that only imparts survival of a few months. GBM is highly heterogenous, invasive, vascularized, and almost always inaccessible for treatment. Based on all these outstanding obstacles, there have been tremendous efforts to develop alternative treatment options that allow for more efficient targeting of the tumor including small molecule drugs and immunotherapies. A number of other strategies in development include therapies based on nanoparticles, light, extracellular vesicles, and micro-RNA, and vessel co-option. Advances in these potential approaches shed a promising outlook on the future of GBM treatment.
Cancer treatment and therapy has made significant leaps and bounds in these past decades. However, there are still cases where surgical removal is impossible, metastases are challenging and chemotherapy and radiotherapy pose severe side effects. Therefore, the need to find more effective and specific treatments still exists. One of the ways is through the utilization of drug delivery agents (DDA) based on nanomaterials. In 2001, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) were first used as DDA and have gained considerable attention in this field. The popularity of MSNs is due to their unique properties such as tunable particle and pore size, high surface area and pore volume, easy functionalization and surface modification, high stability and their capability to efficiently entrap cargo molecules. This review describes the latest advancement of MSNs as DDA for cancer treatment. We focus on the fabrication of MSNs, the challenges in DDA development and how MSNs address the problems through development of smart DDA using MSNs. Besides that, MSNs have also been applied as a multifunctional DDA where they can serve in both diagnostic and treatment of cancer. Overall, we argue MSNs provide a bright future for both the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
Oral cancer is a malignant condition on the lips or in the oral cavity including the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, parotid, salivary glands, and throat. More than 90% of oral cancer is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a modern diagnostic tool with great potential to provide rapid, objective and accurate early diagnosis of oral cancer, as well as accurate OSCC grading for better cancer management.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a biogenic monoamine produced from the essential amino acid tryptophan. Serotonin’s role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and a motility mediator in the gastrointestinal tract has been well defined, and its function in tumorigenesis in various cancers (gliomas, carcinoids, and carcinomas) is being studied. Many studies have shown a potential stimulatory effect of serotonin on cancer cell proliferation, invasion, dissemination, and tumor angiogenesis.