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Submitted by: Somenath Ghosh
Cannabis sativa is a cheap hallucinating agent used in different parts of the world from time unknown as a part of various religious as well as social practices. Cannabis which is a special type of Marijuana can provide temporary relief from analgesia, body pain and in some other clinical conditions. But, impacts of Cannabis on reproductive health of males and females are multi-faceted and differentially fatal. In males, Cannabis can cause changes in testicular morphology, sperm parameters (in terms of semen quality, sperm morphology, sperm mortality and sperm motility), male reproductive hormones and finally causing reduced libido. In females, Cannabis can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles.  Current research suggest that cannabis may negatively impact on male and female fertility conditions. However, male sterility considering the Cannabis impact is totally lacking in human as well as in sub-human primates. However, very limited studies are available on Cannabis effect on primate female reproduction considering Rhesus monkeys. Hence, further studies are needed to validate that robust findings in animal models will carry over into human experience.  
Submitted by: Silvano Bertelloni
Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is due to complete resistance to the action of androgens, determining a female phenotype in persons with a 46,XY karyotype and functioning testes.