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15q13.3 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 15 is deleted in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated q13.3. This chromosomal change increases the risk of intellectual disability, seizures, behavioral problems, and psychiatric disorders. However, some people with a 15q13.3 microdeletion do not appear to have any associated features.
16p11.2 duplication is a chromosomal change in which a small amount of genetic material within chromosome 16 is abnormally copied (duplicated). The duplication occurs near the middle of the chromosome at a location designated p11.2. This duplication can have a variety of effects. Common characteristics that occur in people with a 16p11.2 duplication include a low weight; a small head size (microcephaly); and developmental delay, especially in speech and language. Affected individuals also have an increased risk of behavioral problems. However, some people with the duplication have no identified physical or behavioral abnormalities.
16p12.2 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small amount of genetic material on chromosome 16 is deleted. The deletion occurs on the short (p) arm of the chromosome at a location designated p12.2. Common characteristics that have been described in people with a 16p12.2 microdeletion include developmental delay, delayed speech, intellectual disability that ranges from mild to profound, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), slow growth resulting in short stature, an usually small head (microcephaly), malformations of the heart, recurrent seizures (epilepsy), and psychiatric and behavioral problems.
17 alpha(α)-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is a condition that affects the function of certain hormone-producing glands called the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males) and the adrenal glands. The gonads direct sexual development before birth and during puberty and are important for reproduction. The adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys, regulate the production of certain hormones, including those that control salt levels in the body. People with 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency have an imbalance of many of the hormones that are made in these glands. 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is one of a group of disorders, known as congenital adrenal hyperplasias, that impair hormone production and disrupt sexual development and maturation.
17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency is a condition that affects male sexual development. People with this condition are genetically male, with one X and one Y chromosome in each cell, and they have male gonads (testes). Their bodies, however, do not produce enough of a male sex hormone (androgen) called testosterone. Testosterone has a critical role in male sexual development, and a shortage of this hormone disrupts the formation of the external sex organs before birth.
19p13.13 deletion syndrome is a condition that results from a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 19 is deleted in each cell. The deletion occurs on the short (p) arm of the chromosome at a position designated p13.13
1p36 deletion syndrome is a disorder that typically causes severe intellectual disability. Most affected individuals do not speak, or speak only a few words. They may have temper tantrums, bite themselves, or exhibit other behavior problems. Most have structural abnormalities of the brain, and seizures occur in more than half of individuals with this disorder. Affected individuals usually have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).