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Retinal Disease and Metabolism
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Submitted by: Gideon Nkrumah
Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) is a chorioretinal disease affecting mostly middle-age males. It is marked by the serous detachment of the neurosensory layer at the macula. This review of the literature provides a framework of the current characteristic/relevant imaging findings of CSCR. Although the pathogenesis of CSCR is unclear, the choroid plays a major role and its changes are fundamental to the diagnosis and treatment of CSCR.  Choroidal imaging has advanced the diagnosis of CSCR. This has led to numerous imaging biomarkers like CVI, CT, and hyperreflective dots for early detection and possible prognostication of CSCR. More techniques like wide-field scans and en face imaging are being employed to characterize the choroid in CSCR. 
Submitted by: Arnaud MARTEL
Intraocular solid malignancy biopsy is usually not performed due to the risk and fear of extraocular extension. Recently, liquid biopsy has gained in popularity in this field. Liquid biopsy allows the diagnosis of intraocular malignancies as well as its monitoring in retinoblastoma. Liquid biopsy may help the clinican to better understand the metastatic spread, especially in uveal melanoma.
Submitted by: Adriano Carnevali
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a non-invasive diagnostic instrument that has become indispensable for the management of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). OCTA allows quickly visualizing retinal and choroidal microvasculature, and in the last years, its use has increased in clinical practice as well as for research into the pathophysiology of AMD.