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COVID-19 is an RNA virus that has caused a pandemic leading to death and disability on a global scale. The virus gains entry into the cell using host protein angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor. The viral envelope fuses with the cell membrane through the endosomal pathway, allowing the viral particle to enter the host cell, where it can release its RNA and replicate. After an initial asymptomatic period, common presenting signs and symptoms of COVID-19 infection are non-specific and may include those of a common cold or influenza such as fever, dry cough, myalgia, headache and fatigue. Sore throat and nasal congestion may also be noted. Gastrointestinal and other symptoms may occur and loss of sense of taste and smell is a frequent early symptom that may distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory infections. The virus is highly contagious and there is no cure. In order to avoid transmission, social distancing, mask wearing and reduced person-to-person interaction are key. Definitive diagnosis is based on reverse-transcription PCR of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from mild to moderate or severe. In order to minimize spread of COVID-19 to both patients and healthcare workers, virtual evaluation of suspected cases is being widely implemented and has necessitated an adjustment to the new medium by all participants. The use of virtual technology for real-time telemedicine assessment for COVID-19 provisional diagnosis and categorization of severity allows patients to receive an appropriate level of care without endangering others. We created a protocol for implementing a remote visit using a computer or mobile device. This enables patient assessement without direct contact to determine the need to visit a healthcare facility or alternatively, to be managed at home. If stable, the patient can isolate and be monitored so that should their condition worsen, they can be directed to in-person care at a hospital. Vigilance in checking on the patient's condition is crucial because those who develop severe COVID-19 may not experience dyspnea and other signs of rapid deterioration until about 5-8 days after symptom onset.
This work represents a comprehensive analysis of the potential AI, ML, and IoT technologies for defending against the COVID-19 pandemic. The existing and potential applications of AI, ML, and IoT, along with a detailed analysis of the enabling tools and techniques are outlined. A critical discussion on the risks and limitations of the aforementioned technologies are also included.
In the 21st century, three highly pathogenic betacoronaviruses have emerged, with an alarming rate of human morbidity and case fatality. Genomic information has been widely used to understand the pathogenesis, animal origin and mode of transmission of coronaviruses in the aftermath of the 2002–2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks. Furthermore, genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis have had an unprecedented relevance in the battle against the 2019–2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the newest and most devastating outbreak caused by a coronavirus in the history of mankind. Here, we briefly review the application of genomics and bioinformatics in the molecular epidemiology of pathogenic betacoronaviruses.
COVID-19 pandemic continues to pose a serious threat to global public health with overwhelming worldwide socio-economic disruption. SARS-CoV-2, the viral agent of COVID-19, uses its surface glycoprotein Spike (S) for host cell attachment and entry. The emerging picture of pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 demonstrates that S protein, in addition, to ACE2, interacts with the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of C-type lectin receptors, CD209L and CD209. Recognition of CD209L and CD209 which are widely expressed in SARS-CoV-2 target organs can facilitate entry and transmission leading to dysregulation of the host immune response and other major organs including, cardiovascular system. Establishing a comprehensive map of the SARS-CoV-2 interaction with CD209 family proteins, and their roles in transmission and pathogenesis can provide new insights into host-pathogen interaction with implications in therapies and vaccine development.
The recently discovered novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19 virus), has brought the whole world to a standstill with critical challenges, affecting both health and economic sectors worldwide. Although initially, this pandemic was associated with causing severe pulmonary and respiratory disorders, recent case studies reported the association of cerebrovascular-neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, which is also life-threatening. Several SARS-CoV-2 positive case studies have been reported where there are mild or no symptoms of this virus. However, a selection of patients is suffering from large artery ischemic strokes. Although the pathophysiology of the SARS-CoV-2 virus affecting the cerebrovascular system has not been elucidated yet, researchers have identified several pathogenic mechanisms, including a role for the ACE2 receptor. Therefore, it is extremely crucial to identify the risk factors related to the progression and adverse outcome of cerebrovascular-neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Since many articles have reported the effect of smoking (tobacco and cannabis) and vaping in cerebrovascular and neurological systems, and considering that smokers are more prone to viral and bacterial infection compared to non-smokers, it is high time to explore the probable correlation of smoking in COVID-19 patients. Herein, we have reviewed the possible role of smoking and vaping on cerebrovascular and neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, along with potential pathogenic mechanisms associated with it.
The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is caused by the highly transmissible severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has affected the global population despite socioeconomic status and amazed surveillance agencies for its incidence, mortality, and recovery rates.
At the end of 2019 a novel virus, SARS-Cov-2, causing severe acute respiratory syndrome has expanded from Wuhan, China. In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the SARS-Cov-2 virus a global pandemic. We performed a narrative review to describe existing literature with regard to COVID-19 epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management and future perspective. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched for relevant articles.Although only when the pandemic will end it will be possible to assess the health, social and economic impact of this global disaster, this review represents a picture of the current state of the art. In particular, we focus on public health impact, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations, diagnosis, case management, emergency response and preparedness.
Single-strand RNA (ssRNA) viruses such as the coronavirus family replicate the virus genomes by taking advantage of host cells. For example, after coronavirus approaches the ribosome of the epithelial cells or other host cells, it uses the ribosome of the host cell to replicate polyproteins. The replication and subsequent processes of precursor polyproteins can occur in the epithelial cells. After the coronavirus’ polyproteins are expressed, two enzymes — specifically, coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) — are thought to be involved in cleaving the polyproteins into smaller products used for replicating new viruses. In order to generate the daughter RNA genome, the coronavirus expresses an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which is a crucial replicase that catalyzes the synthesis of a complementary RNA strand using the virus RNA template
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has claimed over one million lives worldwide since December 2019. The complement system, while a first-line immune defense against invading pathogens, has off-target effects that lead to increases in inflammation, tissue damage, and thrombosis; these are common, life-threatening complications seen in patients with COVID-19. The potential impact of complement activation in COVID-19 and possible treatments targeting the complement system are discussed.
In this approach we will summarise the the last three publications highlighting the key mathematical approach like Exponential F ( x ) to further exponential –Gaussian F ( x ) and finally the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbital ( LCAO ) ie a hybridised SP orbital overlapping to Remdesivir ( Drug ) –Covid19 approach. .Sigmoid Statistics or Logistics regression is a method to applied to Infection fatality rate ( IFR ) the most important epidemological parameters is also under consideration .
We present an overview of the current state of knowledge on the SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to an overview of the epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features of SARS-CoV-2, we also summarize possible therapeutic options currently under investigation and the future outlook for the disease. Whereas the trials on SARS-CoV-2 genome-based specific vaccines and therapeutic antibodies are currently being tested, this solution is more long-term, as they require thorough testing of their safety. On the other hand, the repurposing of the existing therapeutic agents previously designed for other virus infections and pathologies happens to be the only practical approach as a rapid response measure to the emergent pandemic. The current pandemic emergency will be a trigger for more systematic drug repurposing design approaches based on big data analysis.