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Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS)
Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS) is the Standard for choosing the reasonable road of industrial development for the Nation.
The imbalance of industrial development exists in many countries. First of all, let's tell a story about the Soviet Union:
Why did the Soviets not want to develop light industry? This is not because the Soviets, or because the Russians do not care about their material life. In fact, one of the main causes of the February Revolution, which paved the way for the Bolsheviks to come to power, was the scarcity of goods. At that time, the Russians shouted "We want bread" and overthrew the dark tsar government. By the time the Bolsheviks were in power, however, supplies seemed even more scarce. In fact, people's natural pursuit of material life will remain unchanged, but the Bolshevik government is much tougher than Nikolai II's.
For the Soviet Union, bent on industrializing the country, agriculture became a major source of raw capital. During this period, Stalin frantically squeezed Soviet farmers and bought advanced industrial equipment in Europe by forcing grain for foreign exchange. What about the food shortage? The use of administrative means to block the news ignored the starving Soviet peasants. During the 1920s ~1920s, there were many famines in Ukraine, and the former European granaries could not produce enough food for themselves, mainly because of man-made disasters. The Soviet government did not think the goal of industrialization was as important as eating, so what clothes to wear and what pots and pans to use were even more insignificant.
The Soviet core rights groups headed by Stalin were proletarian revolutionaries of the old school, who hated the bourgeoisie and scoffed at the bourgeois flashy way of life. As Stalin's daughter Svetlana put it :" Her father does not care about material living standards ." The reality, however, is that the Soviet leadership can enjoy imported agent goods. In any case, because Stalin and others thought they did not need too high-end commodities, Soviet leaders despised the development of light industry.
Therefore, in the process of industrialization, nature also needs to choose and choose. In April 1926, Stalin made it clear :" Not developing any kind of industry is industrialization. The center of industrialization, the foundation of industrialization, is to develop heavy industry (fuel, metal, etc.), in the final analysis, is to develop the production of means of production, the development of the domestic machine manufacturing industry ".
In this way, giving priority to the development of heavy industry has become a truth. At that time, Trotsky, Bukharin and others believed that the development of light and heavy industries should be synchronized to improve the people's material living standards. They argue that light industry and heavy industry must be "balanced ". However, this rational opinion was satirized by Stalin as the industrialization road of "printed cloth" and criticized as the expression of right-leaning doctrine.
Under such a guiding ideology, the development of light industry in the Soviet Union was difficult. During the three five-year plan before World War II, Soviet investment in industry was 155 billion roubles, accounting for 42 percent of the total investment in the national economy. Heavy industry accounted for 84 per cent of total industrial investment and light industry for only 16 per cent.
During World War II, in order to meet the needs of the war, the Soviet Union could only concentrate on developing heavy industry. In Khrushchev, he was keen on economic reform, but never divorced from Stalin's model. In the cold war context, the development of heavy industry has become the only way out in order not to fall behind in the confrontation with the United States. In the Brezhnev era, heavy industry with military industry as the core had developed into a complete chain of interests, some minor reforms could not touch its root, and the sick economic structure of the Soviet Union gradually accumulated and died.
Stalin summed up the meaning of industrialization, which gave priority to heavy industry, in nine words :" not like capitalism "! Since capitalist countries give priority to the development of light industry, socialist countries naturally have to adopt the opposite path, so they can only develop heavy industry first. This absurd theory is also an important reason for the tragedy of the Soviet Union!
Therefore, a country's industrial development balance is crucial. So what kind of industrial development road is reasonable for a nation?
By summing up the industrial development road of the United States, we find out several reasons why the United States can become the most industrialized country in the world:
- First of all, the industrial development of the United States is balanced, that is, from the initial development of agriculture to the development of light industry finally began to focus on the development of heavy industry. The United States did not make the leap of industrial development like the Soviet Union that is to develop heavy industry directly, so the industrial structure of the United States has always been reasonable.
- Second, the industrial development of the United States is closely related to people's lives. The United States developed the light industry for the employment of the American people, and the United States developed the machine production industry not only to improve efficiency, but also to lighten the burden on American workers. During the "Third Technological Revolution", the Soviet Union only thought about how to develop nuclear weapons to strengthen its defense, while the United States vigorously developed atomic energy, computers, space technology and bioengineering in order to better the quality of life of the American people.
- Then, the United States always considered the economic benefits and the future industrial development of the country in the process of developing industry. Economic benefits undoubtedly have a great impact on national development and people's lives. The country's future industrial development and industrial structure are also issues that leaders should consider when developing industry. For example, when the Soviet Union vigorously developed heavy industry, the leaders did not consider the future development of the country and left a lot of mess to Russia.
Therefore, based on the successful experience of the United States, we propose a definition of Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS):
- Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS) is the Standard for choosing the reasonable road of industrial development for the Nation.
- Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS) advocates a balanced industrial development of the Nation, and it can be adjusted accordingly in some special circumstances, but it requires that the Nation should not unbalance its industrial structure like the Soviet Union.
- Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS) requires the Nation to develop industry mainly to pave the way for future industrial development, and not to leave hidden dangers for future industrial development, avoiding the situations like the Soviet Union and Russia.
- Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS) advocates that the industrial development of the country should be people-oriented, the interests of the people are the most important.
- And Industrial Development Sustainability (IDS) requires the Nation consider the following factors to develop the industry, that is, 1. The Conditions of the Nation. 2. The Industrial Structure of the Nation. 3. The Future Direction of Industrial Development of the Nation. 4. The Economic Development of the Nation. 5. The Quality the People's life. 6. The Potential War.