The Genus Lagochilus (Lamiaceae)
The genus Lagochilus (Lamiaceae) is native to Central, South-Central, and Eastern Asia.
Terrestrial plants have been used for centuries as an endless well for supplying many medicinally important secondary metabolites that are used effectively in curing various ailments. They are considered as the milestone of all the traditional medicinal systems used throughout the whole world since antiquity. This fact attracted researchers in drug discovery to explore these plants frequently with the aim of finding new secondary metabolites or to validate the claimed ethnopharmacological uses.
Family Lamiaceae (the mint family) is among the largest family that contains about 236 genera and 6900 to 7200 species. The family is famous for many of its widely used genera including Salvia, Scutellaria, Stachys, Plectranthus, Hyptis, Teucrium, Vitex, Thymus, and Nepeta. Members from the Lamiaceae are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants and have been used as traditional herbal medicines for thousands of years. They are also used as culinary herbs, spices, and vegetables and as ingredients in cosmetics, hygienic products, and perfumes.
The genus Lagochilus is a small genus that comprises about 44 species that are native to Central, South-Central, and Eastern Asia. It is highly drought-tolerant and is considered a typical mountain plant. Most of these species have been commonly used as herbal medicines for the treatment of various ailments for thousands of years, especially in Asian countries. Species of this genus exhibit various pharmacological effects, such as hemostatic, antispasmodic, and anti-edemic properties, and can be used against bleeding, coronary heart disease, chest pain, skin conditions, stomach pain, and as a tranquilizer. The most reported properties include relaxation, insomnia, dementia, euphoria, and subtle perceptual changes. Lagochilus is also used for the treatment of allergies and skin diseases. Pharmacological studies indicated that mainly diterpenoids have hemostatic abilities.
Previous chemical instigations on the genus are limited due to the fact that many species are classified endangered, and the collection of these plants is not easy. However, this effort on the chemical profiling of the plants belonging to the genus led to the isolation and characterization of many diterpenes, flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenes, and polysaccharides. The diterpene lagochiline and its derivatives are among the promising hemostatic agents .
2. Taxonomy and Botany
Within the Lamiaceae family, Lagochilus belongs to the subfamily Lamioideae and tribe Leonureae Dumort. Species of Lagochilus are subshrubs or perennial herbs (Figure 1). Rootstocks are woody. Stems are green-white, rigid, and sparsely hirsute. The leaf blade is rhombic, palmatipartite, or pinnatipartite, with lobes spinescent, sometimes subtending sterile spinescent bracteoles. Normally, 2–10 flowers grow vertically. The calyx is campanulate to tubular-campanulate, 5-veined; throat oblique, straight; teeth five, subequal or three posterior teeth longer, triangular to oblong or broadly ovate, usually longer than the tube, apex spinescent. Corolla is villous outside, pilose annulate inside, 2-lipped; upper lip oblong, straight, slightly concave, 2-lobed or 4-toothed; lower lip obliquely spreading, 3-lobed; middle lobe largest, obcordate, 2-lobulate; lateral lobes straight, acute, or emarginate. Stamens are four, exserted or sub included, anterior two longer; with filaments complanate; anther cells two, parallel or divergent, ciliate. Style is filiform, apex subequally 2-cleft. Nutlets are flattened-obconical, oblong–obovoid or oblong–ovoid, apex truncate or rounded, glandular, dusty hairy, scaly, or glabrous, smooth.
Figure 1. Photograph for some Lagochilus species from Uzbekistan Flora (A): L. inebrians Bunge, (B): L. nevskii Knorring, (C): L. occultiflorus Rupr., (D): L. olgae Kamelin, (E): L. platycalyx Schrenk, (F): L. proskorjakovii Ikramov, (G): L. seravschanicus Knorring, (H): L. setulosus Vved., (I): L. vvedenskyi R. Kam. (Photos A, B, D, G are taken by Natalya Beshko, photos C, H are taken by Alim Gaziev, photo E is taken by Tulkin Tillaev, photos F, I are taken by Akbar Akhmedov).
The genus Lagochilus is mostly distributed on dry slopes, in valleys, and deserts from Iran to Mongolia, Russia (south Siberia), northwest China, north Pakistan and has a distributional center in Tianshan Mountains and Central Asia. The results of the studies of Zhang et al.  showed that the Tianshan Mountains, especially the western Ili-Kirghizia Tianshan, as well as Sunggar and Kaschgar, were the ancestral area. The ancestral biome was mainly in the montane steppe zone of valley and slope at altitudes of 1700 ± 2700 m above sea level, and the montane desert zone of foothill and front-hill at 800 ± 1700 m. The main center of diversity lies in Central Asia. According to Tskervanik, in world flora, there are 44 species that can be distinguished in Lagochilus. According to the taxonomy of this author, 34 species grow in the territory of the CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States).
In the flora of Uzbekistan, this genus is represented by 18 species (Table 1). Taxa of the genus Lagochilus basically occur throughout the territory of Uzbekistan, starting from the deserts to Tian-Shan and Pamir-Alay mountain systems. The majority of species can be found in the Pamir-Alai Mountain, south-west of Tian-Shan and Turanian lowland. Species from the genus Lagochilus belong to the most vulnerable plant species from the Lamiaceae family. Out of the existing 18 Lagochilus species in the flora of Uzbekistan, four are included in the Red Book of the Republic of Uzbekistan: L. vvedenskyi, L. olgae, L. proskorjakovii, and L. inebrians. The main population of these species grows in Nuratau and Kyzylkum deserts. On the basis of occurrence, these Red List plant species belong to category I (disappearing) and II (rare species). In addition, the natural distribution of other species from this genus, such as L. gypsaceus and L. acutilobus, are also limited across the country. In the territory of South Kazakhstan, 10 species of Lagochilus were found, and the areas of these species are located in Karatau, Karzhantau, and Aksu-Zhabagly. In the Flora of China, there are 14 Lagochilus species distributed wildly in the northwest region. One of the species, L. ilicifolius, grows in the desert (sandy land) and steppe in northwestern China (Neimeng, Gansu, Shanxi, and Ningxia provinces), whereas the other 13 species are distributed mainly in the Xinjiang region. The Flora of Iran comprises six species, and four of them (L. macranthus Fisch and C.A. Mey., L. quadridentatus Jamzad, L. lasiocalyx (Stapf) Jamzad, and L. aucheri Boiss.) are endemic to Iran. Three species of Lagochilus are found in Mongolian flora, and they are widely distributed in the Khangai, Mongolian Altai, Middle Khalkha, Depression of Great Lakes, Valley of Lakes, East Gobi, Gobi-Altai, Transaltai Gobi, Alashan Gobi regions (Table 1).
|Afghanistan||western Himalaya||L. cabulicus Benth., L. cuneatus Benth., L. hindukushi Kamelin and Gubanov, L. schugnanicus Knorring||https://wcsp.science.kew.org/|
|China||northwestern China, Xinjiang region (Ili Valley, the Karakoram and Altai Mountains)||L. ilicifolius Bunge ex Benth., L. grandiflorus C. Y. Wu and Hsuan, L. platyacanthus Rupr., L. kaschgaricus Ruprecht, L. diacanthophyllus (Pall.) Benth, L. hirtus Fisch. and C.A. Mey., L. bungei Benth., L. macrodontus Knorring, L. kaschgaricus Rupr., L. lanatonodus C.Y. Wu and S.J. Hsuan, L. leiacanthus Fisch. and C.A. Mey., L. pungens Schrenk, L. xianjiangensis G.J. Liu|| https://wcsp.science.kew.org/|
|Iran||L. alutaceus Bunge., L. cabulicus Benth., L. macranthus Fisch and C.A. Mey., L. quadridentatus Jamzad, L. lasiocalyx (Stapf) Jamzad, L. aucheri Boiss.|||
|Kazakhstan||Karatau, Karzhantau, Aksu-Zhabagly||L. acutilobus (Ledeb.) Fisch. and C.A. Mey., L. bungei Benth., L. longidentatus Knorr., L. pulcher Knorr., L. taucumensis Zucker., L. inebrians Bunge, L. androsswii Knorr., L. leiacanthus Fisch. et Mey, L. pungens Schrenk, L. hirtus Fisch. et Mey, L. diacanthophillus Benth., L. kaschgaricus Rupr., L. knorringianus Pavlov, L. occultiflorus Rupr., L. platyacanthus Rupr., L. platycalyx Schrenk ex Fisch. and C.A. Mey, L. seravschanicus Knorring, L. setulosus Vved., L. subhispidus Knorring||
|Kyrgyzstan||Tian-Shan and Pamir Alai Mountains||L. diacanthophyllus (Pall.) Benth, L. drobovii Kamelin and Tzukerv., L. hirsutissimus Vved, L. kaschgaricus Rupr., L. knorringianus Pavlov, L. occultiflorus Rupr., L. paulsenii Briq., L. platyacanthus Rupr., L. platycalyx Schrenk ex Fisch. and C.A. Mey, L. pubescens Vved., L. pulcher Knorring, L. schugnanicus Knorring, L. turkestanicus Knorring||https://wcsp.science.kew.org/|
|Mongolia||Mongolian Altai and Khangai Mountains, Gobi regions||L. bungei Benth., L. diacanthophyllus, L. ilicifolius Bge|||
|Pakistan||Western Pakistan||L. cabulicus Benth., L. cuneatus Benth., L. schugnanicus Knorring||https://wcsp.science.kew.org/|
|Tajikistan||Pamir-Alay Mountains||L. botschantzevii Kamelin and Tzukerv., L. gypsaceus Vved., L. hirsutissimus Vved, L. inebrians Bunge, L. knorringianus Pavlov, L. kschtutensis Knorring, L. nevskii Knorring, L. paulsenii Briq., L. platyacanthus Rupr, L. platycalyx Schrenk ex Fisch. and C.A. Mey, L. pubescens Vved, L. schugnanicus Knorring, L. seravschanicus Knorring, L. turkestanicus Knorring||https://wcsp.science.kew.org/|
|Turkmenistan||L. balchanicus Czerniak., L. gypsaceus Vved., L. inebrians Bunge, L. cabulicus Benth.||https://wcsp.science.kew.org/|
|Uzbekistan||Nuratau and Kyzylkum deserts, Tian-Shan and Pamir-Alay Mountains||L. acutilobus (Ledeb.) Fisch. et C. A. Mey., L. botschantzevii Kamelin et Zukerv., L. diacanthophyllus (Pall.) Benth., L. gypsaceus Vved., L. hirsutissimus Vved., L. inebrians Bunge, L. knorringianus Pavlov, L. kschtutensis Knorr., L. nevskii Knorr., L. occultiflorus Rupr., L. olgae R. Kamelin, L. paulsenii Briq., L. pubescens Vved., L. platyacanthus Rupr., L. setulosus Vved., L. platycalyx Schrenk, L. seravschanicus Knorr., L. vvedenskyi R. Kam. et Zucker.|||
The entry is from 10.3390/plants10010132
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