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Table of Contents

    Biography

    Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    Submitted by: Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    Abstract

    Dr. Dirk W. Lachenmeier is state-certified food chemist, toxicologist, director of the department of plant-based foods and co-head of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratory at Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Agency, Karlsruhe, Germany.

     

    Dr. Dirk W. Lachenmeier

    Education

    Dr. Lachenmeier studied food chemistry (first state examination) at the University of Bonn (1994-1998), followed by position as first-year resident at various food control institutions in the State of North Rhine-Westfalia, concluding the studies with the second state examination and title of state-certified food chemist (Münster, 2000). He carried out his PhD in Forensic Toxicology at the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Bonn (2000-2003). His PhD research included the development of an innovative methodology to detect cannabis and designer drugs in hair samples[1].

    Career

    Since 2003, Dr. Lachenmeier is employed at the Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Agency Karlsruhe (CVUAKA), Germany, where he first headed the alcohol laboratory (2003-2012), and later was promoted as director of the department of plant-based food, where he is personally heading the Central State Coffee Control Laboratory and the Central State Cannabis Control Laboratory, and his group includes a team of scientists and technicians investigating various matrices such as tea, spices, bakery and pasta products, food supplements, and products for special nutritional demands (diets). At CVUAKA he also co-heads the nuclear mangetic resonance (NMR) laboratory since 2010 and his department is responsible for the fields "novel food products" and "internet trade". Dr. Lachenmeier has been working as official on secondment at the Ministry of Rural Affair and Consumer Protection Baden-Württemberg (2012-2013).

    Dr. Dirk W. Lachenmeier at a coffee cup tasting

    Major research topics

    Unrecorded alcohol: health risks beyond ethanol

    Dr. Lachenmeier’s research on unrecorded alcohol (i.e. illegal or illicitly produced alcohol, as well as surrogate alcohol not originally intended for human consumption) started in 2007, where he was tasked in writing a section on the chemical composition of alcoholic beverages for the IARC monograph Vol. 96. During the literature review, it became evident that almost nothing had been known about the composition and health effects of unrecorded alcohol. In collaboration with the group of Prof. Jürgen Rehm in Toronto, he started to investigate unrecorded alcohol from several countries[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][12][20][21]. The major conclusion was that unrecorded alcohol most typically exhibits the same risk as recorded alcohol, which is characterized by volume and patterns of drinking. Exceptions of the rule are poisonings with methanol, which may occur worldwide due to admixture of methanol to alcoholic beverages[22].

    Cannabis and hemp food product: THC and cannabidiol analysis and evaluation

    Cannabis was among the first research interests of Dr. Lachenmeier. During his PhD thesis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) belonged to the compounds of interest in his methodological developments[23][24][25]. As early as 2003[26], he studied THC and cannabidiol (CBD) in hemp food products[27][28][29]. More recently, due to the risen interest in CBD products, several new studies were conducted regarding the composition and evaluation of CBD products[30][31][32], as well as their legal status considering the EU’s novel food regulation[33]. A paper on comparative risk assessment of cannabis, alcohol, and other drugs was widely mentioned in the media[34]. Dr. Lachenmeier was featured in several television and radio broadcasts as expert on cannabis and CBD.

    Oesophageal cancer risk of very hot beverages

    The IARC monographs meeting Vol. 116 in 2016 was the starting point for Dr. Lachenmeier’s research on the cancer risk of very hot beverages. According to the elaborations of the IARC working group, very hot beverages, i.e. beverages consumed at more than 65°C independent of type, may significantly increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. Mechanistic research confirmed that the direct temperature effect but not exposure to chemical contaminants such as PAHs may contribute to the oesophageal cancer risk[35]. Interestingly, the mean serving temperature of coffee in German gastronomy is about 75°C, higher than the threshold of IARC[36].  However, consumers typically prefer lower temperatures of coffee such as 63°C[37]. The cooling time to less than 65 °C may be more than 20 min depending on material of the cup[38]. The contact temperature is obviously the determining factor for the risk of injury in the oral cavity in addition to the contact time, and a contact temperature of 46.5 °C was considered to be just comfortable for any period >10 s and about 48 °C for periods of less than 10 s[39]From all these considerations, the lowering of serving temperatures of hot beverages was suggested to mitigate the cancer risk[40]. In fact, coffee is typically brewed and served too hot, which also influences flavour and taste in a negative fashion, so that lowering temperatures may be a win-win-situation.[41][42]

    EU Research Projects

    Apart from various in-house projects, Dr. Lachenmeier contributed to the EU FP7 projects AMPHORA (Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance) (2009-2012) and ALICE-RAP (Addictions and Lifestyles In Contemporary Europe – Reframing Addictions Project) (2011-2016), for which he was avocationally working as scientist at the Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technical University of Dresden, Germany. The projects allowed Dr. Lachenmeier to achieve major conclusions on the composition and health risk of unrecorded alcohol, as well as on the comparative risk assessment of alcohol and drugs[2][43][44][34].

    Expert work for WHO IARC

    Since 2007, Dr. Lachenmeier has regularly contributed to working groups of the monographs program of the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). At several meetings he was responsible as sub-group head for the exposure or epidemiology sections of the meetings. The contributions were included in the following IARC monographs and reports:

    Expert work for DFG Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM)

    Since 2011, Dr. Lachenmeier participates as expert in the meetings of the working group "food constituents" of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, DFG) Senate Commission on Food Safety. The following position statements of the commission were developed in the working group:

    Society memberships

    Dr. Dirk Lachenmeier is member of the Food Chemical Society (LChG) within the German Chemical Society since 1995. He joined the working group spirits of the LChG in 2003, and the working group chemometrics of the LChG in 2017. He co-headed the regional association south-west of the LChG 2005-2011. He was member of the American Chemical Society 2006-2016. Dr. Lachenmeier is member  of the Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh) since 2001 and  has been member of the GTFCh working group "Alcohol consumption" 2005-2010.

    Teaching and supervising activities

    His educational activities include analytical chemistry, food chemistry, food law, regulatory toxicology, food fraud, food authentication, food science and composition for students in food chemistry and in training of food inspectors, as well as in various national and international seminars, meetings and congresses. He has supervised four PhD theses, 2 postdoc researchers and more than 20 diploma, bachelor and master theses.

    Productivity

    Dr. Dirk Lachenmeier has more than 400 articles in international refereed journals and books, including the Lancet[3], the Lancet Oncology[45][46][47][48][49][50] , the Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology[51], the Journal of the National Cancer Institute[35], the International Journal of Cancer[52][53][54], the British Medical Journal[55], BMC Medicine[56], BMC Cancer[57][58], Addiction[2][59][4][60][5][6][61] and more than 100 other journals. According to Google Scholar (March 2020), the publications of Dr. Lachenmeier achieved 11.266 citations, his h-index is 56 and his i10-index is 199. The ten publications with the highest number of citations are Refs[49][62][63][34][64][59][7][8][65][66]. According to Laborjournal, Dr. Lachenmeier is listed among the highest-cited researchers in Germany in toxicology. He has peer reviewed more than 600 articles according to Publons

    Dr. Lachenmeier has served as Academic Editor for Scientific Reports, Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Beverages, Toxics, Foods, Sci, Wine Studies, Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau, the Open Toxicology Journal, and the Open Addiction Journal.

    For full publication list, see Research Gate

    Awards

    Dr. Lachenmeier received the Award of the Fonds of Chemical Industry (1994) for his university-entrance diploma in chemistry. In 2005, he received the Bruno-Rossmann-Award of the Food Chemical Society for the study "Rapid screening for ethyl carbamate in stone-fruit spirits using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics"[67]. For his peer reviewing activity according to Publons, Dr. Lachenmeier was among the top reviewers in cross-field (September 2019), top reviewers for agricultural sciences (September 2018), top reviewers in Germany (September 2017), top reviewers for agricultural and biological sciences (September 2017), top reviewers for pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics (September 2017), sentinels of science: chemistry (September 2016), top reviewers for Germany (Jan 2016-Apr 2016), top reviewers for Publons (Oct 2014-Jan 2016). 

    Identifiers

    Affiliation

    Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt (CVUA) Karlsruhe

    Weissenburger Strasse 3

    D-76187 Karlsruhe

    Germany

    E-mail address: lachenmeier@web.de

     

    References

    1. Neue Methodenkombination aus dynamischer Festphasenextraktion, Gaschromatographie und Massenspektrometrie für den Einsatz in der forensisch-toxikologischen Haaranalytik . Dissertation, Universität Bonn. Retrieved 2020-3-14
    2. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Kerstin Schoeberl; Fotis Kanteres; Thomas Kuballa; Eva-Maria Sohnius; Jürgen Rehm; Is contaminated unrecorded alcohol a health problem in the European Union? A review of existing and methodological outline for future studies. Addiction 2011, 106, 20-30, 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03322.x.
    3. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Jürgen Rehm; Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach. Scientific Reports 2015, 5, 8126, 10.1038/srep08126.
    4. F Musshoff; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Lars Kroener; B. Madea; Automated headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction for the determination of cannabinoids in hair samples.. Forensic Science International 2003, 133, 32-38, 10.1016/s0379-0738(03)00047-1.
    5. F Musshoff; F. Driever; K. Lachenmeier; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; M. Banger; B. Madea; Results of hair analyses for drugs of abuse and comparison with self-reports and urine tests. Forensic Science International 2006, 156, 118-123, 10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.07.024.
    6. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Lars Kroener; Frank Musshoff; B. Madea; Determination of cannabinoids in hemp food products by use of headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography?mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2004, 378, 183-189, 10.1007/s00216-003-2268-4.
    7. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Patrick Diel; A Warning against the Negligent Use of Cannabidiol in Professional and Amateur Athletes. Sports 2019, 7, 251, 10.3390/sports7120251.
    8. Habel, Stephanie; Sproll, Constanze; Teipel, Jan; Walch, Stephan G.; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Positive Cannabis-Urintests durch kommerzielle Cannabidiol-Produkte. Toxichem Krimtech 2020, 87, 10-18, 10.5281/zenodo.3583086.
    9. Jürgen Rehm; Shalini Kailasapillai; Elisabeth Larsen; Maximilien X. Rehm; Andriy V. Samokhvalov; Kevin D. Shield; Michael Roerecke; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; A systematic review of the epidemiology of unrecorded alcohol consumption and the chemical composition of unrecorded alcohol. Addiction 2014, 109, 880-893, 10.1111/add.12498.
    10. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Jürgen Rehm; Gerhard Gmel; Surrogate Alcohol: What Do We Know and Where Do We Go?. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2007, 31, 1613-1624, 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00474.x.
    11. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Sebastian Ganss; Bogumil Rychlak; Jürgen Rehm; Urszula Sulkowska; Michał Skiba; Witold Zatonski; Association Between Quality of Cheap and Unrecorded Alcohol Products and Public Health Consequences in Poland. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 2009, 33, 1757-1769, 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2009.01013.x.
    12. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Yulia B Monakhova; Jürgen Rehm; Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality. World Journal of Gastroenterology 2014, 20, 7217-7222, 10.3748/wjg.v20.i23.7217.
    13. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Benjamin Taylor; Jürgen Rehm; Alcohol under the radar: Do we have policy options regarding unrecorded alcohol?. International Journal of Drug Policy 2011, 22, 153-160, 10.1016/j.drugpo.2010.11.002.
    14. Jürgen Rehm; Fotis Kanteres; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Unrecorded consumption, quality of alcohol and health consequences. Drug and Alcohol Review 2010, 29, 426-436, 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00140.x.
    15. Jenny Leitz; Thomas Kuballa; Jürgen Rehm; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Chemical Analysis and Risk Assessment of Diethyl Phthalate in Alcoholic Beverages with Special Regard to Unrecorded Alcohol. PLOS ONE 2009, 4, e8127, 10.1371/journal.pone.0008127.
    16. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Andriy V. Samokhvalov; Jenny Leitz; Kerstin Schoeberl; Thomas Kuballa; Igor V. Linskiy; Oleksandr I. Minko; Jürgen Rehm; The composition of unrecorded alcohol from eastern Ukraine: Is there a toxicological concern beyond ethanol alone?. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2010, 48, 2842-2847, 10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.016.
    17. Yuriy V. Solodun; Yulia B. Monakhova; Thomas Kuballa; Andriy V. Samokhvalov; Jürgen Rehm; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 2011, 4, 198-205, 10.2478/v10102-011-0030-x.
    18. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Advances in the Detection of the Adulteration of Alcoholic Beverages Including Unrecorded Alcohol. Advances in Food Authenticity Testing 2016, 2016, 565-584, 10.1016/b978-0-08-100220-9.00021-7.
    19. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Yulia B. Monakhova; Andriy V. Samokhvalov; Jürgen Rehm; Causality between polyhexamethyleneguanidine occurrence in unrecorded alcohol and cholestatic hepatitis outbreak in Russia.. Clinical Toxicology 2012, 50, 154-155, 10.3109/15563650.2011.646355.
    20. Alex O. Okaru; Kennedy Abuga; Isaac Kibwage; Thomas Hausler; Burkhard Luy; Thomas Kuballa; Jürgen Rehm; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Aflatoxin contamination in unrecorded beers from Kenya – A health risk beyond ethanol. Food Control 2017, 79, 344-348, 10.1016/j.foodcont.2017.04.006.
    21. Jürgen Rehm; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Unrecorded alcohol and lead poisoning.. The American Journal of Medicine 2013, 126, e39, 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.05.019.
    22. Thomas Hausler; Alex O. Okaru; Maria Neufeld; Jürgen Rehm; Thomas Kuballa; Burkhard Luy; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Nontargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to detect hazardous substances including methanol in unrecorded alcohol from Novosibirsk, Russia. Proceedings of the XIII International Conference on the Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Food Science 2016, 2016, 27-31, 10.1255/mrfs.6.
    23. Robert Baan; Kurt Straif; Yann Grosse; Beatrice Lauby-Secretan; Fatiha El Ghissassi; Véronique Bouvard; Andrea Altieri; Vincent Cogliano; WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group; Carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages. The Lancet Oncology 2007, 8, 292-293, 10.1016/s1470-2045(07)70099-2.
    24. M Matilde Marques; Amy Berrington De Gonzalez; Frederick A. Beland; Patience Browne; Paul A Demers; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Tina Bahadori; Dinesh K. Barupal; Fiorella Belpoggi; Pietro Comba; et al. Advisory Group recommendations on priorities for the IARC Monographs. The Lancet Oncology 2019, 20, 763-764, 10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30246-3.
    25. Yann Grosse; Dana Loomis; Kathryn Z Guyton; Fatiha El Ghissassi; Véronique Bouvard; Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa; Heidi Mattock; Kurt Straif; Some chemicals that cause tumours of the urinary tract in rodents. The Lancet Oncology 2017, 18, 1003-1004, 10.1016/s1470-2045(17)30505-3.
    26. Maria Neufeld; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Thomas Hausler; Jürgen Rehm; Surrogate alcohol containing methanol, social deprivation and public health in Novosibirsk, Russia. International Journal of Drug Policy 2016, 37, 107-110, 10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.08.001.
    27. Fotis Kanteres; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Jürgen Rehm; Alcohol in Mayan Guatemala: consumption, distribution, production and composition of cuxa. Addiction 2009, 104, 752-759, 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02507.x.
    28. Yulia B. Monakhova; Thomas Kuballa; Jenny Leitz; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Determination of Diethyl Phthalate and Polyhexamethylene Guanidine in Surrogate Alcohol from Russia. International Journal of Analytical Chemistry 2011, 2011, 1-7, 10.1155/2011/704795.
    29. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Jenny Leitz; Kerstin Schoeberl; Thomas Kuballa; Irene Straub; Jürgen Rehm; Calidad del alcohol producido en Europa ilegalmente o de forma no regulada: resultados del proyecto AMPHORA. Adicciones 2011, 23, 133-140, 10.20882/adicciones.156.
    30. Jürgen Rehm; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Eva Jané-Llopis; Sameer Imtiaz; Peter Anderson; Evidence of reducing ethanol content in beverages to reduce harmful use of alcohol. The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2016, 1, 78-83, 10.1016/s2468-1253(16)30013-9.
    31. Yann Grosse; Robert Baan; Béatrice Secretan-Lauby; Fatiha El Ghissassi; Véronique Bouvard; Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa; Neela Guha; Farhad Islami; Laurent Galichet; Kurt Straif; et al. Carcinogenicity of chemicals in industrial and consumer products, food contaminants and flavourings, and water chlorination byproducts.. The Lancet Oncology 2011, 12, 328-329, 10.1016/s1470-2045(11)70088-2.
    32. Yann Grosse; Dana Loomis; Beatrice Lauby-Secretan; Fatiha El Ghissassi; Véronique Bouvard; Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa; Neela Guha; Robert Baan; Heidi Mattock; Kurt Straif; et al. Carcinogenicity of some drugs and herbal products.. The Lancet Oncology 2013, 14, 807-808, 10.1016/s1470-2045(13)70329-2.
    33. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Szidönia Gumbel-Mako; Eva-Maria Sohnius; Andrea Keck-Wilhelm; Evamaria Kratz; Gerd Mildau; Salivary acetaldehyde increase due to alcohol-containing mouthwash use: A risk factor for oral cancer. International Journal of Cancer 2009, 125, 730-735, 10.1002/ijc.24381.
    34. Peter Anderson; Virginia Berridge; Patricia Conrod; Robert Dudley; Matilda Hellman; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Anne Lingford-Hughes; David Miller; Jürgen Rehm; Robin Room; et al. Reframing the science and policy of nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol – conclusions of the ALICE RAP Project. F1000Research 2017, 6, 289, 10.12688/f1000research.10860.1.
    35. Alex O. Okaru; Anke Rullmann; Adriana Farah; Elvira Gonzalez De Mejia; Mariana C. Stern; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Comparative oesophageal cancer risk assessment of hot beverage consumption (coffee, mate and tea): the margin of exposure of PAH vs very hot temperatures.. BMC Cancer 2018, 18, 236-13, 10.1186/s12885-018-4060-z.
    36. Verst, Lisa-Marie; Winkler, Gertrud; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Dispensing and serving temperatures of coffee-based hot beverages. Exploratory survey as a basis for cancer risk assessment. Ernährungs Umschau 2018, 65, 64-70, 10.4455/eu.2018.014.
    37. Julia Dirler; Gertrud Winkler; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; What Temperature of Coffee Exceeds the Pain Threshold? Pilot Study of a Sensory Analysis Method as Basis for Cancer Risk Assessment. Foods 2018, 7, 83, 10.3390/foods7060083.
    38. Tabea Langer; Gertrud Winkler; Dirk W Lachenmeier; Untersuchungen zum Abkühlverhalten von Heißgetränken vor dem Hintergrund des temperaturbedingten Krebsrisikos. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 2018, 114, 307-314, 10.5281/zenodo.1402983.
    39. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Walter Lachenmeier; Injury Threshold of Oral Contact with Hot Foods and Method for Its Sensory Evaluation. Safety 2018, 4, 38, 10.3390/safety4030038.
    40. Dirk W Lachenmeier; Steffen Schwarz; Some Like It Too Hot? Rethinking Coffee Serving Practices. coffeebi.com 2018, 28-02, https://coffeebi.com/2018/02/28/like-hot-rethinking-coffee-serving-practices/, 10.5281/zenodo.1204877.
    41. Steffen Schwarz; Dirk W Lachenmeier; Kaffee. Lieber weniger heiß?. Food Service 2017, 12, 12, 10.5281/zenodo.1160822.
    42. Johanna Klotz; Gertrud Winkler; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Influence of the Brewing Temperature on the Taste of Espresso. Foods 2020, 9, 36, 10.3390/foods9010036.
    43. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephan G Walch; Commentary on Probst et al . (2018): Unrecorded alcohol use-an underestimated global phenomenon. Addiction 2018, 113, 1242-1243, 10.1111/add.14195.
    44. Alex O. Okaru; Jürgen Rehm; Katharina Sommerfeld; Thomas Kuballa; Stephan G. Walch; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; The Threat to Quality of Alcoholic Beverages by Unrecorded Consumption. Alcoholic Beverages 2019, 2019, 1-34, 10.1016/b978-0-12-815269-0.00001-5.
    45. Jonathan M Samet; Weihsueh A. Chiu; Vincent Cogliano; Jennifer Jinot; David Kriebel; Ruth M Lunn; Frederick A Beland; Lisa A. Bero; Patience Browne; Lin Fritschi; et al. The IARC Monographs: Updated Procedures for Modern and Transparent Evidence Synthesis in Cancer Hazard Identification. JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2019, 112, 30-37, 10.1093/jnci/djz169.
    46. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Rolf Godelmann; Barbara Witt; Kerstin Riedel; Jürgen Rehm; Can resveratrol in wine protect against the carcinogenicity of ethanol? A probabilistic dose-response assessment. International Journal of Cancer 2013, 134, 144-153, 10.1002/ijc.28336.
    47. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Maria C. Przybylski; Jürgen Rehm; Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach. International Journal of Cancer 2012, 131, E995-E1003, 10.1002/ijc.27553.
    48. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Jürgen Rehm; Perhaps not such a great threat to public health in the UK.. BMJ 2012, 344, e2251-e2251, 10.1136/bmj.e2251.
    49. Dana Loomis; Kathryn Z Guyton; Yann Grosse; Beatrice Lauby-Secretan; Fatiha El Ghissassi; Véronique Bouvard; Lamia Benbrahim-Tallaa; Neela Guha; Heidi Mattock; Kurt Straif; et al. Carcinogenicity of drinking coffee, mate, and very hot beverages. The Lancet Oncology 2016, 17, 877-878, 10.1016/s1470-2045(16)30239-x.
    50. Jürgen Rehm; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Robin Room; Why does society accept a higher risk for alcohol than for other voluntary or involuntary risks?. BMC Medicine 2014, 12, 189, 10.1186/s12916-014-0189-z.
    51. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Maria Cristina Pereira Lima; Ian Cc Nóbrega; José Ap Pereira; Florence Kerr-Corrêa; Fotis Kanteres; Jürgen Rehm; Cancer risk assessment of ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages from Brazil with special consideration to the spirits cachaça and tiquira. BMC Cancer 2010, 10, 266-266, 10.1186/1471-2407-10-266.
    52. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Fotis Kanteres; Jürgen Rehm; Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism. Addiction 2009, 104, 533-550, 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02516.x.
    53. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephan G Walch; Commentary on Rehm et al . (2017): Composition of alcoholic beverages—an under‐researched dimension in the global comparative risk assessment. Addiction 2017, 112, 1002-1003, 10.1111/add.13790.
    54. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Alcohol consumption and ethyl carbamate.; International Agency for Research on Cancer: Lyon, France, 2010; pp. 1-1424.
    55. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Rapid quality control of spirit drinks and beer using multivariate data analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectra. Food Chemistry 2007, 101, 825-832, 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.12.032.
    56. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 2008, 3, 26-26, 10.1186/1745-6673-3-26.
    57. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Eberhard Humpfer; Fang Fang; Birk Schütz; Peter Dvortsak; Constanze Sproll; Manfred Spraul; NMR-Spectroscopy for Nontargeted Screening and Simultaneous Quantification of Health-Relevant Compounds in Foods: The Example of Melamine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2009, 57, 7194-7199, 10.1021/jf902038j.
    58. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Eva-Maria Sohnius; The role of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism in the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages: Evidence from a large chemical survey. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2008, 46, 2903-2911, 10.1016/j.fct.2008.05.034.
    59. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Rapid screening for ethyl carbamate in stone-fruit spirits using FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2005, 382, 1407-1412, 10.1007/s00216-005-3285-2.
    60. F Musshoff; Heike P. Junker; Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Lars Kroener; B. Madea; Fully automated determination of cannabinoids in hair samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 2002, 26, 554-560, 10.1093/jat/26.8.554.
    61. Lachenmeier, DW; Hemp food products - A problem?. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 2014, 100, 481-490, 10.5281/zenodo.3266096.
    62. Lachenmeier, DW; Walch, SG; Analysis and toxicological evaluation of Cannabinoids in hemp food products-a review. Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2005, 4, 812-826, 10.5281/zenodo.438133.
    63. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephan G Walch; Current Status of THC in German Hemp Food Products. Journal of Industrial Hemp 2006, 10, 5-17, 10.1300/j237v10n02_02.
    64. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Stephanie Habel; Berit Fischer; Frauke Herbi; Yvonne Zerbe; Verena Bock; Tabata Rajcic De Rezende; Stephan G. Walch; Constanze Sproll; Are side effects of cannabidiol (CBD) products caused by tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contamination?. F1000Research 2020, 8, 1394, 10.12688/f1000research.19931.2.
    65. Lachenmeier, Dirk W.; Bock, Verena; Deych, Anna; Sproll, Constanze; Rajcic de Rezende, Tabata; Walch, Stephan G.; Hanfhaltige Lebensmittel - ein Update. Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau 2019, 115, 351-372, 10.5281/zenodo.3384641.
    66. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Jürgen Rehm; Unrecorded alcohol: a threat to public health?. Addiction 2009, 104, 875-877, 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02587.x.
    67. Dirk W. Lachenmeier; Reducing harm from alcohol: what about unrecorded products?. The Lancet 2009, 374, 977, 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61661-5.
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