Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B subunit delta
1. Normal Function
The EIF2B4 gene provides instructions for making one of five parts of a protein called eIF2B, specifically the delta subunit of this protein. The eIF2B protein helps regulate overall protein production (synthesis) in the cell by interacting with another protein, eIF2. The eIF2 protein is called an initiation factor because it is involved in starting (initiating) protein synthesis.
Under some conditions, eIF2B increases protein synthesis by helping to recycle molecules called GTP, which carry energy to the initiation factor. Under other conditions, it slows protein synthesis by binding tightly to the initiation factor, which converts the eIF2B protein into an inactive form and prevents recycling of GTP.
Proper regulation of protein synthesis is vital for ensuring that the correct levels of protein are available for the cell to cope with changing conditions. For example, cells must synthesize protein much faster if they are multiplying than if they are in a resting state.
2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
2.1 Leukoencephalopathy with Vanishing White Matter
Mutations in the EIF2B4 gene have been identified in a few people with leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter, including some affected females with a variant of the disorder in which the neurological features are accompanied by ovarian failure (ovarioleukodystrophy). These mutations cause partial loss of eIF2B function. Impairment of eIF2B function makes it more difficult for the body's cells to regulate protein synthesis and deal with changing conditions and stress. Researchers believe that cells in the white matter (nerve fibers covered by a fatty substance called myelin that insulates and protects nerves) may be particularly affected by an abnormal response to stress, resulting in the signs and symptoms of leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter.
3. Other Names for This Gene
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 4 (delta, 67kD)
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 4 delta
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B, subunit 4 delta, 67kDa
translation initiation factor eIF-2b delta subunit
The entry is from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/eif2b4
- Dietrich J, Lacagnina M, Gass D, Richfield E, Mayer-Pröschel M, Noble M,Torres C, Pröschel C. EIF2B5 mutations compromise GFAP+ astrocyte generation invanishing white matter leukodystrophy. Nat Med. 2005 Mar;11(3):277-83.
- Eurekah Bioscience: Mechanism of Translation Initiation in Eukaryotes
- Fogli A, Boespflug-Tanguy O. The large spectrum of eIF2B-related diseases.Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Feb;34(Pt 1):22-9. Review.
- Fogli A, Schiffmann R, Hugendubler L, Combes P, Bertini E, Rodriguez D,Kimball SR, Boespflug-Tanguy O. Decreased guanine nucleotide exchange factoractivity in eIF2B-mutated patients. Eur J Hum Genet. 2004 Jul;12(7):561-6.
- Li W, Wang X, Van Der Knaap MS, Proud CG. Mutations linked toleukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter impair the function of theeukaryotic initiation factor 2B complex in diverse ways. Mol Cell Biol. 2004Apr;24(8):3295-306.
- Molecular Biology of the Cell (fourth edition, 2002): The Phosphorylation of an Initiation Factor Globally Regulates Protein Synthesis
- Pavitt GD. eIF2B, a mediator of general and gene-specific translationalcontrol. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005 Dec;33(Pt 6):1487-92. Review.
- Pronk JC, van Kollenburg B, Scheper GC, van der Knaap MS. Vanishing whitematter disease: a review with focus on its genetics. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2006;12(2):123-8. Review.
- Scali O, Di Perri C, Federico A. The spectrum of mutations for the diagnosisof vanishing white matter disease. Neurol Sci. 2006 Sep;27(4):271-7. Review.
- Scheper GC, Proud CG, van der Knaap MS. Defective translation initiationcauses vanishing of cerebral white matter. Trends Mol Med. 2006 Apr;12(4):159-66.
- van der Voorn JP, van Kollenburg B, Bertrand G, Van Haren K, Scheper GC,Powers JM, van der Knaap MS. The unfolded protein response in vanishing whitematter disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005 Sep;64(9):770-5.
- van Kollenburg B, van Dijk J, Garbern J, Thomas AA, Scheper GC, Powers JM, vander Knaap MS. Glia-specific activation of all pathways of the unfolded proteinresponse in vanishing white matter disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006Jul;65(7):707-15.