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    Topic review

    FLNB Gene

    Subjects: Genetics
    View times: 5
    Submitted by: Vivi Li
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    Filamin B

    1. Normal Function

    The FLNB gene provides instructions for making a protein called filamin B. This protein helps build the network of protein filaments (cytoskeleton) that gives structure to cells and allows them to change shape and move. Filamin B attaches (binds) to another protein called actin and helps the actin to form the branching network of filaments that makes up the cytoskeleton. It also links actin to many other proteins to perform various functions within the cell, including the cell signaling that helps determine how the cytoskeleton will change as tissues grow and take shape during development.

    Filamin B is involved in the development of the skeleton before birth. It is active (expressed) in many cells and tissues of the body, including cartilage-forming cells called chondrocytes. Cartilage is a tough, flexible tissue that makes up much of the skeleton during early development. Most cartilage is later converted to bone (a process called ossification), except for the cartilage that continues to cover and protect the ends of bones and is present in the nose, airways (trachea and bronchi), and external ears. Filamin B appears to be important for normal cell growth and division (proliferation) and maturation (differentiation) of chondrocytes and for the ossification of cartilage.

    2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

    2.1 Atelosteogenesis Type 1

    At least seven FLNB gene mutations have been identified that cause atelosteogenesis type 1, a disorder that affects the development of bones throughout the body. The mutations change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the filamin B protein or delete a small section of the protein sequence, resulting in an abnormal protein. This abnormal protein appears to have a new, atypical function that interferes with normal proliferation or differentiation of chondrocytes, impairing ossification and leading to the signs and symptoms of atelosteogenesis type 1.

    2.2 Atelosteogenesis Type 3

    At least six FLNB gene mutations have been identified that cause atelosteogenesis type 3, a disorder that affects the development of bones throughout the body. These mutations change single amino acids in the filamin B protein or delete a small section of the protein sequence, resulting in an abnormal protein. This abnormal protein appears to have a new, atypical function that interferes with normal proliferation or differentiation of chondrocytes, impairing ossification and leading to the signs and symptoms of atelosteogenesis type 3.

    2.3 Boomerang Dysplasia

    At least two FLNB gene mutations have been identified that cause boomerang dysplasia, a disorder that affects the development of bones throughout the body. These mutations change single amino acids in the filamin B protein or delete a small section of the protein sequence, resulting in an abnormal protein. This abnormal protein appears to have a new, atypical function that interferes with normal proliferation or differentiation of chondrocytes, impairing ossification and leading to the signs and symptoms of boomerang dysplasia.

    2.4 Larsen Syndrome

    At least 13 FLNB gene mutations have been identified that cause Larsen syndrome, a disorder that affects the development of bones throughout the body. These mutations change single amino acids in the filamin B protein or delete a small section of the protein sequence, resulting in an abnormal protein. This abnormal protein appears to have a new, atypical function that interferes with normal proliferation or differentiation of chondrocytes, impairing ossification and leading to the signs and symptoms of Larsen syndrome.

    It is not clear why similar mutations in the FLNB gene can result in four different disorders: atelosteogenesis type 1, atelosteogenesis type 3, boomerang dysplasia, or Larsen syndrome. Certain mutations in regions of the FLNB gene known as exons 2 through 5 seem to have the most harmful effects, usually resulting in the more severe disorders, atelosteogenesis type 1 and boomerang dysplasia. Atelosteogenesis type 3 and Larsen syndrome, which are less severe, are usually caused by apparently milder mutations in exons 2 through 5 or by mutations in exons 27 through 33. In a few cases, the same mutation has been associated with more than one of these disorders in different people.

    2.5 Spondylocarpotarsal Synostosis Syndrome

    At least five FLNB gene mutations have been identified that cause spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome, a disorder that affects the development of bones throughout the body. These mutations, which may occur in any region of the gene, result in the production of an abnormally short filamin B protein that is unstable and breaks down rapidly. Loss of the filamin B protein appears to result in out-of-place (ectopic) ossification, resulting in fusion of the bones in the spine, wrists, and ankles and other signs and symptoms of spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome.

    2.4 Other Disorders

    Several common variations (polymorphisms) in the FLNB gene have been associated with low bone mineral density (osteoporosis), which weakens the bones and makes them prone to fracture. FLNB gene variations may affect the maintenance of bone structure throughout the lifespan and result in differences in bone mineral density.

    3. Other Names for This Gene

    • ABP-278

    • ABP-280 homolog

    • actin binding protein 278

    • actin-binding-like protein

    • beta-filamin

    • FH1

    • filamin B, beta

    • filamin homolog 1

    • filamin-3

    • filamin-B

    • FLN-B

    • FLN1L

    • FLNB_HUMAN

    • LRS1

    • TABP

    • TAP

    • thyroid autoantigen

    • truncated ABP

    • truncated actin-binding protein

    The entry is from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/flnb

    References

    1. Bicknell LS, Farrington-Rock C, Shafeghati Y, Rump P, Alanay Y, Alembik Y,Al-Madani N, Firth H, Karimi-Nejad MH, Kim CA, Leask K, Maisenbacher M, Moran E, Pappas JG, Prontera P, de Ravel T, Fryns JP, Sweeney E, Fryer A, Unger S, Wilson LC, Lachman RS, Rimoin DL, Cohn DH, Krakow D, Robertson SP. A molecular andclinical study of Larsen syndrome caused by mutations in FLNB. J Med Genet. 2007 Feb;44(2):89-98.
    2. Bicknell LS, Morgan T, Bonafé L, Wessels MW, Bialer MG, Willems PJ, Cohn DH,Krakow D, Robertson SP. Mutations in FLNB cause boomerang dysplasia. J Med Genet.2005 Jul;42(7):e43.
    3. Farrington-Rock C, Firestein MH, Bicknell LS, Superti-Furga A, Bacino CA,Cormier-Daire V, Le Merrer M, Baumann C, Roume J, Rump P, Verheij JB, Sweeney E, Rimoin DL, Lachman RS, Robertson SP, Cohn DH, Krakow D. Mutations in two regions of FLNB result in atelosteogenesis I and III. Hum Mutat. 2006 Jul;27(7):705-10.
    4. Isidor B, Cormier-Daire V, Le Merrer M, Lefrancois T, Hamel A, Le Caignec C,David A, Jacquemont S. Autosomal dominant spondylocarpotarsal synostosissyndrome: phenotypic homogeneity and genetic heterogeneity. Am J Med Genet A.2008 Jun 15;146A(12):1593-7. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32217.
    5. Krakow D, Robertson SP, King LM, Morgan T, Sebald ET, Bertolotto C,Wachsmann-Hogiu S, Acuna D, Shapiro SS, Takafuta T, Aftimos S, Kim CA, Firth H,Steiner CE, Cormier-Daire V, Superti-Furga A, Bonafe L, Graham JM Jr, Grix A,Bacino CA, Allanson J, Bialer MG, Lachman RS, Rimoin DL, Cohn DH. Mutations inthe gene encoding filamin B disrupt vertebral segmentation, joint formation andskeletogenesis. Nat Genet. 2004 Apr;36(4):405-10.
    6. Li GH, Kung AW, Huang QY. Common variants in FLNB/CRTAP, not ARHGEF3 at 3p,are associated with osteoporosis in southern Chinese women. Osteoporos Int. 2010 Jun;21(6):1009-20. doi: 10.1007/s00198-009-1043-6.
    7. Sawyer GM, Clark AR, Robertson SP, Sutherland-Smith AJ. Disease-associatedsubstitutions in the filamin B actin binding domain confer enhanced actin bindingaffinity in the absence of major structural disturbance: Insights from thecrystal structures of filamin B actin binding domains. J Mol Biol. 2009 Jul31;390(5):1030-47. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.06.009.
    8. Wilson SG, Jones MR, Mullin BH, Dick IM, Richards JB, Pastinen TM, GrundbergE, Ljunggren O, Surdulescu GL, Dudbridge F, Elliott KS, Cervino AC, Spector TD,Prince RL. Common sequence variation in FLNB regulates bone structure in women inthe general population and FLNB mRNA expression in osteoblasts in vitro. J BoneMiner Res. 2009 Dec;24(12):1989-97. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.090530.
    9. Yang CF, Wang CH, Siong H'ng W, Chang CP, Lin WD, Chen YT, Wu JY, Tsai FJ.Filamin B Loss-of-Function Mutation in Dimerization Domain CausesAutosomal-Recessive Spondylocarpotarsal Synostosis Syndrome with Rib Anomalies.Hum Mutat. 2017 May;38(5):540-547. doi: 10.1002/humu.23186.
    10. Zhang D, Herring JA, Swaney SS, McClendon TB, Gao X, Browne RH, Rathjen KE,Johnston CE, Harris S, Cain NM, Wise CA. Mutations responsible for Larsensyndrome cluster in the FLNB protein. J Med Genet. 2006 May;43(5):e24.
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