Exostosin glycosyltransferase 1
1. Normal Function
The EXT1 gene provides instructions for producing a protein called exostosin-1. This protein is found in a cell structure called the Golgi apparatus, which modifies newly produced enzymes and other proteins. In the Golgi apparatus, exostosin-1 attaches (binds) to another protein, exostosin-2, to form a complex that modifies heparan sulfate. Heparan sulfate is a complex of sugar molecules (a polysaccharide) that is added to proteins to form proteoglycans, which are proteins attached to several sugars. Heparan sulfate is involved in regulating a variety of body processes including blood clotting and the formation of blood vessels (angiogenesis). It also has a role in the spreading (metastasis) of cancer cells.
2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes
2.1 Hereditary Multiple Osteochondromas
About 480 mutations in the EXT1 gene have been identified in people with hereditary multiple osteochondromas type 1, a condition in which people develop multiple benign (noncancerous) bone tumors called osteochondromas. Most of these mutations are known as "loss-of-function" mutations because they prevent any functional exostosin-1 protein from being made. The loss of functional exostosin-1 protein prevents it from forming a complex with the exostosin-2 protein and adding heparan sulfate to proteins. It is unclear how this impairment leads to the signs and symptoms of hereditary multiple osteochondromas.
2.2 Trichorhinophalangeal Syndrome Type II
The EXT1 gene is located in a region of chromosome 8 that is deleted in people with trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II (TRPS II). TRPS II is a condition that causes bone and joint malformations including multiple osteochondromas (described above); distinctive facial features; intellectual disability; and abnormalities of the skin, hair, teeth, sweat glands, and nails. As a result of this deletion, affected individuals are missing one copy of the EXT1 gene in each cell. A shortage of exostosin-1 protein causes the osteochondromas in people with TRPS II. The deletion of other genes near the EXT1 gene likely contributes to the additional features of this condition.
3. Other Names for This Gene
exostoses (multiple) 1
Glucuronosyl-N-acetylglucosaminyl-proteoglycan 4-alpha-N- acetylglucosaminyltransferase
The entry is from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/ext1
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