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    Topic review

    NSD2 Gene

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    Submitted by: Lily Guo
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    nuclear receptor binding SET domain protein 2

    1. Introduction

    The NSD2 gene (also known as WHSC1 and MMSET) provides instructions for making at least three very similar proteins known as MMSET I, MMSET II, and RE-IIBP. These proteins are active both before and after birth in many of the body's cells and tissues. They appear to play an important role in normal development.

    At least two of the proteins produced from the NSD2 gene, MMSET II and RE-IIBP, likely help regulate the activity of other genes. Studies suggest that these proteins function as histone methyltransferases, which are enzymes that modify DNA-associated proteins called histones. By adding a molecule called a methyl group to histones, histone methyltransferases can turn off (suppress) the activity of certain genes. Scientists are working to identify the genes targeted by the MMSET II and RE-IIBP proteins.

    2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

    2.1. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome

    The NSD2 gene is located in a region of chromosome 4 that is deleted in people with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. As a result of this deletion, affected individuals are missing one copy of the NSD2 gene in each cell. A loss of the NSD2 gene probably disrupts the regulation of several other genes, although these genes have not been identified. Researchers speculate that abnormal gene regulation during development contributes to many of the characteristic features of the disorder, including intellectual disability, growth delay, and a distinctive facial appearance.

    2.2. Cancers

    A chromosomal rearrangement (translocation) involving the NSD2 gene has been associated with multiple myeloma, a cancer that starts in cells of the bone marrow. This rearrangement is found in 15 to 20 percent of all multiple myelomas. The translocation, which is written as t(4;14)(p16;q32), abnormally fuses the NSD2 gene on chromosome 4 with part of another gene on chromosome 14. The fusion of these genes overactivates the NSD2 gene, which appears to promote the uncontrolled growth and division of cancer cells.

    3. Other Names for This Gene

    • FLJ23286
    • IL5 promoter REII region-binding protein
    • KIAA1090
    • MGC176638
    • MMSET
    • multiple myeloma SET domain protein
    • NSD2_HUMAN
    • Nuclear SET domain-containing protein 2
    • Probable histone-lysine N-methyltransferase NSD2
    • Protein trithorax-5
    • REIIBP
    • trithorax/ash1-related protein 5
    • TRX5
    • WHSC1
    • Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1

    The entry is from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/nsd2

    References

    1. Bergemann AD, Cole F, Hirschhorn K. The etiology of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Trends Genet. 2005 Mar;21(3):188-95. Review.
    2. Chesi M, Nardini E, Lim RS, Smith KD, Kuehl WM, Bergsagel PL. The t(4;14)translocation in myeloma dysregulates both FGFR3 and a novel gene, MMSET,resulting in IgH/MMSET hybrid transcripts. Blood. 1998 Nov 1;92(9):3025-34.
    3. Keats JJ, Maxwell CA, Taylor BJ, Hendzel MJ, Chesi M, Bergsagel PL, LarrattLM, Mant MJ, Reiman T, Belch AR, Pilarski LM. Overexpression of transcriptsoriginating from the MMSET locus characterizes all t(4;14)(p16;q32)-positivemultiple myeloma patients. Blood. 2005 May 15;105(10):4060-9.
    4. Keats JJ, Reiman T, Belch AR, Pilarski LM. Ten years and counting: so what do we know about t(4;14)(p16;q32) multiple myeloma. Leuk Lymphoma. 2006Nov;47(11):2289-300. Review.
    5. Kim JY, Kee HJ, Choe NW, Kim SM, Eom GH, Baek HJ, Kook H, Kook H, Seo SB.Multiple-myeloma-related WHSC1/MMSET isoform RE-IIBP is a histonemethyltransferase with transcriptional repression activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2008Mar;28(6):2023-34. doi: 10.1128/MCB.02130-07.
    6. Lauring J, Abukhdeir AM, Konishi H, Garay JP, Gustin JP, Wang Q, Arceci RJ,Matsui W, Park BH. The multiple myeloma associated MMSET gene contributes tocellular adhesion, clonogenic growth, and tumorigenicity. Blood. 2008 Jan15;111(2):856-64.
    7. Marango J, Shimoyama M, Nishio H, Meyer JA, Min DJ, Sirulnik A,Martinez-Martinez Y, Chesi M, Bergsagel PL, Zhou MM, Waxman S, Leibovitch BA,Walsh MJ, Licht JD. The MMSET protein is a histone methyltransferase withcharacteristics of a transcriptional corepressor. Blood. 2008 Mar15;111(6):3145-54.
    8. Stec I, Wright TJ, van Ommen GJ, de Boer PA, van Haeringen A, Moorman AF,Altherr MR, den Dunnen JT. WHSC1, a 90 kb SET domain-containing gene, expressedin early development and homologous to a Drosophila dysmorphy gene maps in theWolf-Hirschhorn syndrome critical region and is fused to IgH in t(4;14) multiple myeloma. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Jul;7(7):1071-82. Erratum in: Hum Mol Genet 1998Sep;7(9):1527.
    9. Todoerti K, Ronchetti D, Agnelli L, Castellani S, Marelli S, Deliliers GL,Zanella A, Lombardi L, Neri A. Transcription repression activity is associatedwith the type I isoform of the MMSET gene involved in t(4;14) in multiplemyeloma. Br J Haematol. 2005 Oct;131(2):214-8.
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