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    ELP1 Gene

    View times: 13
    Submitted by: Vivi Li
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    Elongator complex protein 1: The ELP1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called elongator complex protein 1 (ELP1). 

    1. Normal Function

    This protein is found in a variety of cells throughout the body, including brain cells. It is part of a six-protein complex called the elongator complex. The elongator complex plays a key role in transcription, the process that transfers information in genes to the cell machinery that makes proteins. Researchers believe that the elongator complex is important for the transcription of proteins that affect the cell's structural framework (the cytoskeleton) and cell movement (motility). The cytoskeleton and cell motility are essential for the growth and development of cells. For example, the cytoskeleton plays a critical role in the growth of nerve cells, particularly the specialized extensions called axons and dendrites that are required for the transmission of nerve impulses. Cell motility is crucial for the movement of nerve cells to their proper locations in the brain.

    2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

    2.1 Familial Dysautonomia

    Nearly all individuals with familial dysautonomia have two copies of the same mutation in each cell. This mutation can disrupt how information in the ELP1 gene is spliced together during transcription. As a result of this splicing error, a reduced amount of ELP1 protein is produced. This mutation behaves inconsistently, however. Some cells produce near normal amounts of ELP1 protein, and other cells—particularly brain cells—have very little of the protein.

    In a small number of reported familial dysautonomia cases, researchers have identified other mutations that change one of the protein building blocks (amino acids) in the ELP1 protein. In these cases, the amino acid arginine is replaced by the amino acid proline at position 696 (written as Arg696Pro), or the amino acid proline is replaced by the amino acid leucine at position 914 (written as Pro914Leu). People with one of these improper amino acid substitutions also have the splicing mutation. Together, these mutations impair the ELP1 protein.

    It is unclear how ELP1 gene mutations lead to the signs and symptoms of familial dysautonomia. Reduced amounts of ELP1 protein may impair the growth and development of nerve cells by disrupting the cytoskeleton and cell motility.

    3. Other Names for This Gene

    • DYS

    • ELP1_HUMAN

    • IKAP

    • IKBKAP

    • IKI3

    • inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase complex-associated protein

    • TOT1

    This entry is adapted from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/elp1

    References

    1. Anderson SL, Coli R, Daly IW, Kichula EA, Rork MJ, Volpi SA, Ekstein J, Rubin BY. Familial dysautonomia is caused by mutations of the IKAP gene. Am J HumGenet. 2001 Mar;68(3):753-8.
    2. Axelrod FB. Familial dysautonomia. Muscle Nerve. 2004 Mar;29(3):352-63.Review.
    3. Close P, Hawkes N, Cornez I, Creppe C, Lambert CA, Rogister B, Siebenlist U,Merville MP, Slaugenhaupt SA, Bours V, Svejstrup JQ, Chariot A. Transcriptionimpairment and cell migration defects in elongator-depleted cells: implicationfor familial dysautonomia. Mol Cell. 2006 May 19;22(4):521-31.
    4. Cuajungco MP, Leyne M, Mull J, Gill SP, Lu W, Zagzag D, Axelrod FB, Maayan C, Gusella JF, Slaugenhaupt SA. Tissue-specific reduction in splicing efficiency of IKBKAP due to the major mutation associated with familial dysautonomia. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Mar;72(3):749-58.
    5. Ibrahim EC, Hims MM, Shomron N, Burge CB, Slaugenhaupt SA, Reed R. Weakdefinition of IKBKAP exon 20 leads to aberrant splicing in familial dysautonomia.Hum Mutat. 2007 Jan;28(1):41-53.
    6. Leyne M, Mull J, Gill SP, Cuajungco MP, Oddoux C, Blumenfeld A, Maayan C,Gusella JF, Axelrod FB, Slaugenhaupt SA. Identification of the first non-Jewishmutation in familial Dysautonomia. Am J Med Genet A. 2003 May 1;118A(4):305-8.
    7. Slaugenhaupt SA, Blumenfeld A, Gill SP, Leyne M, Mull J, Cuajungco MP, LiebertCB, Chadwick B, Idelson M, Reznik L, Robbins C, Makalowska I, Brownstein M,Krappmann D, Scheidereit C, Maayan C, Axelrod FB, Gusella JF. Tissue-specificexpression of a splicing mutation in the IKBKAP gene causes familialdysautonomia. Am J Hum Genet. 2001 Mar;68(3):598-605.
    8. Slaugenhaupt SA, Gusella JF. Familial dysautonomia. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2002 Jun;12(3):307-11. Review.
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