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    SHANK3 Gene

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    Submitted by: Karina Chen
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3

    1. Normal Function

    The SHANK3 gene provides instructions for making a protein that is found in many of the body's tissues but is most abundant in the brain. The SHANK3 protein plays a role in the functioning of synapses, which are the connections between nerve cells (neurons) where cell-to-cell communication occurs. Within synapses, the SHANK3 protein acts as a scaffold that supports the connections between neurons, ensuring that the signals sent by one neuron are received by another.

    The SHANK3 protein is also involved in the formation and maturation of dendritic spines. Dendrites are specialized extensions from neurons that are essential for the transmission of nerve impulses. Dendritic spines are small outgrowths from dendrites that further help transmit nerve impulses and increase communication between neurons.

    2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

    2.1. 22q13.3 deletion syndrome

    The characteristic signs and symptoms of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome, which is also commonly known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, are caused by a deletion near the end of the long (q) arm of chromosome 22. The chromosomal region that is typically deleted is thought to contain many genes, including the SHANK3 gene. As a result of the deletion, people with this condition have only one copy of the SHANK3 gene in each cell instead of the usual two copies.

    Researchers believe that a deletion of the SHANK3 gene and a reduction in the amount of SHANK3 protein produced is responsible for many of the features of 22q13.3 deletion syndrome. A decrease in the functioning of synapses and cell-to-cell communication between neurons caused by a lack of SHANK3 protein is thought to contribute to the developmental delay, intellectual disability, and absent or severely delayed speech characteristic of people with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome.

    2.2. Autism spectrum disorder

    At least 43 SHANK3 gene mutations have been found in people who have autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a varied condition characterized by impaired communication and socialization skills, as well as repetitive behaviors. Most of these mutations disrupt the function of the SHANK3 protein or prevent the protein from being produced. It is unclear how changes in the SHANK3 gene are related to the risk of developing ASD. Researchers suspect that a disruption in communication between neurons contributes to the development of this condition. Variations in other genes and environmental factors are also thought to affect the risk of this complex disorder.

    3. Other Names for This Gene

    • proline-rich synapse-associated protein 2
    • ProSAP2
    • SPANK-2

    The entry is from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/shank3

    References

    1. Boeckers TM, Bockmann J, Kreutz MR, Gundelfinger ED. ProSAP/Shank proteins - afamily of higher order organizing molecules of the postsynaptic density with anemerging role in human neurological disease. J Neurochem. 2002 Jun;81(5):903-10. Review.
    2. Bonaglia MC, Giorda R, Mani E, Aceti G, Anderlid BM, Baroncini A, Pramparo T, Zuffardi O. Identification of a recurrent breakpoint within the SHANK3 gene inthe 22q13.3 deletion syndrome. J Med Genet. 2006 Oct;43(10):822-8.
    3. Durand CM, Betancur C, Boeckers TM, Bockmann J, Chaste P, Fauchereau F, NygrenG, Rastam M, Gillberg IC, Anckarsäter H, Sponheim E, Goubran-Botros H, Delorme R,Chabane N, Mouren-Simeoni MC, de Mas P, Bieth E, Rogé B, Héron D, Burglen L,Gillberg C, Leboyer M, Bourgeron T. Mutations in the gene encoding the synapticscaffolding protein SHANK3 are associated with autism spectrum disorders. NatGenet. 2007 Jan;39(1):25-7.
    4. Gauthier J, Spiegelman D, Piton A, Lafrenière RG, Laurent S, St-Onge J,Lapointe L, Hamdan FF, Cossette P, Mottron L, Fombonne E, Joober R, Marineau C,Drapeau P, Rouleau GA. Novel de novo SHANK3 mutation in autistic patients. Am JMed Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009 Apr 5;150B(3):421-4. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30822.
    5. Leblond CS, Nava C, Polge A, Gauthier J, Huguet G, Lumbroso S, Giuliano F,Stordeur C, Depienne C, Mouzat K, Pinto D, Howe J, Lemière N, Durand CM, Guibert J, Ey E, Toro R, Peyre H, Mathieu A, Amsellem F, Rastam M, Gillberg IC, RappoldGA, Holt R, Monaco AP, Maestrini E, Galan P, Heron D, Jacquette A, Afenjar A,Rastetter A, Brice A, Devillard F, Assouline B, Laffargue F, Lespinasse J, ChiesaJ, Rivier F, Bonneau D, Regnault B, Zelenika D, Delepine M, Lathrop M, SanlavilleD, Schluth-Bolard C, Edery P, Perrin L, Tabet AC, Schmeisser MJ, Boeckers TM,Coleman M, Sato D, Szatmari P, Scherer SW, Rouleau GA, Betancur C, Leboyer M,Gillberg C, Delorme R, Bourgeron T. Meta-analysis of SHANK Mutations in AutismSpectrum Disorders: a gradient of severity in cognitive impairments. PLoS Genet. 2014 Sep 4;10(9):e1004580. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004580.Sep.
    6. Moessner R, Marshall CR, Sutcliffe JS, Skaug J, Pinto D, Vincent J,Zwaigenbaum L, Fernandez B, Roberts W, Szatmari P, Scherer SW. Contribution ofSHANK3 mutations to autism spectrum disorder. Am J Hum Genet. 2007Dec;81(6):1289-97.
    7. Monteiro P, Feng G. SHANK proteins: roles at the synapse and in autismspectrum disorder. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2017 Mar;18(3):147-157. doi:10.1038/nrn.2016.183.
    8. Sala C, Vicidomini C, Bigi I, Mossa A, Verpelli C. Shank synaptic scaffoldproteins: keys to understanding the pathogenesis of autism and other synapticdisorders. J Neurochem. 2015 Dec;135(5):849-58. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13232.
    9. Uchino S, Waga C. SHANK3 as an autism spectrum disorder-associated gene. BrainDev. 2013 Feb;35(2):106-10. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2012.05.013.
    10. Wilson HL, Wong AC, Shaw SR, Tse WY, Stapleton GA, Phelan MC, Hu S, MarshallJ, McDermid HE. Molecular characterisation of the 22q13 deletion syndromesupports the role of haploinsufficiency of SHANK3/PROSAP2 in the majorneurological symptoms. J Med Genet. 2003 Aug;40(8):575-84.
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