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    RB1 Gene

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    Submitted by: Karina Chen
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    RB transcriptional corepressor 1

    1. Normal Function

    The RB1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called pRB. This protein acts as a tumor suppressor, which means that it regulates cell growth and keeps cells from dividing too fast or in an uncontrolled way. Under certain conditions, pRB stops other proteins from triggering DNA replication, the process by which DNA makes a copy of itself. Because DNA replication must occur before a cell can divide, tight regulation of this process controls cell division and helps prevent the growth of tumors. Additionally, pRB interacts with other proteins to influence cell survival, the self-destruction of cells (apoptosis), and the process by which cells mature to carry out special functions (differentiation).

    2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

    2.1. Retinoblastoma

    Hundreds of mutations in the RB1 gene have been identified in people with retinoblastoma, a rare type of eye cancer that typically affects young children. This cancer develops in the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. Researchers estimate that 40 percent of all retinoblastomas are germinal, which means that RB1 mutations occur in all of the body's cells and can be passed to the next generation. The other 60 percent are non-germinal, which means that RB1 mutations occur only in the eye and cannot be passed to the next generation.

    In germinal retinoblastoma, an RB1 mutation is present in all of the body's cells. For retinoblastoma to develop, the other copy of the RB1 gene also must be mutated or lost. This second mutation typically occurs early in life in retinal cells. Cells with two altered copies of the RB1 gene produce no functional pRB and are unable to regulate cell division effectively. As a result, retinal cells lacking functional pRB can divide uncontrollably to form cancerous tumors. Some studies suggest that additional genetic changes can influence the development of retinoblastoma; these changes may help explain variations in the development and growth of tumors in different people.

    In people with germinal retinoblastoma, RB1 mutations increase the risk of several other cancers outside the eye. Specifically, these people are more likely to develop a cancer of the pineal gland in the brain (pinealoma), a type of bone cancer known as osteosarcoma, cancers of soft tissues such as muscle, and an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma.

    Non-germinal retinoblastoma occurs in people with no history of the disorder in their family. Affected individuals are born with two normal copies of the RB1 gene. Then, usually in early childhood, both copies of the gene in retinal cells acquire mutations or are lost. These genetic changes prevent the cells from producing any functional pRB. The loss of this protein allows retinal cells to grow and divide without control or order, leading to the development of a cancerous tumor.

    2.2. Other cancers

    In addition to bladder cancer, somatic mutations in the RB1 gene are associated with many other types of cancer. For example, changes in the RB1 gene have been reported in some cases of lung cancer, breast cancer, a bone cancer known as osteosarcoma, and an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Somatic RB1 mutations have also been identified in some leukemias, which are cancers of blood-forming cells. Somatic RB1 mutations in cancer cells inactivate pRB so it can no longer regulate cell division effectively.

    3. Other Names for This Gene

    • p105-Rb

    • PP110

    • PPP1R130

    • RB

    • RB1 gene

    • RB_HUMAN

    • retinoblastoma 1

    • Retinoblastoma 1 (including osteosarcoma)

    • Retinoblastoma-1

    • Retinoblastoma-associated protein

    The entry is from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/rb1

    References

    1. Classon M, Harlow E. The retinoblastoma tumour suppressor in development andcancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Dec;2(12):910-7. Review.
    2. de Andrade AF, da Hora Barbosa R, Vargas FR, Ferman S, Eisenberg AL, FernandesL, Bonvicino CR. A molecular study of first and second RB1 mutational hits inretinoblastoma patients. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2006 May;167(1):43-6.
    3. Du W, Pogoriler J. Retinoblastoma family genes. Oncogene. 2006 Aug28;25(38):5190-200. Review.
    4. Goodrich DW. The retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene, the exception thatproves the rule. Oncogene. 2006 Aug 28;25(38):5233-43. Review.
    5. Herwig S, Strauss M. The retinoblastoma protein: a master regulator of cellcycle, differentiation and apoptosis. Eur J Biochem. 1997 Jun 15;246(3):581-601. Review.
    6. Knudsen ES, Knudsen KE. Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor: where cancer meetsthe cell cycle. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 Jul;231(7):1271-81. Review.
    7. Korabiowska M, Ruschenburg I, Betke H, Stachura J, Schlott T, Cardo CC, BrinckU. Downregulation of the retinoblastoma gene expression in the progression ofmalignant melanoma. Pathobiology. 2001;69(5):274-80.
    8. Leiderman YI, Kiss S, Mukai S. Molecular genetics of RB1--the retinoblastomagene. Semin Ophthalmol. 2007 Oct-Dec;22(4):247-54. Review.
    9. Liu H, Dibling B, Spike B, Dirlam A, Macleod K. New roles for the RB tumorsuppressor protein. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2004 Feb;14(1):55-64. Review.
    10. Lohmann DR, Gallie BL. Retinoblastoma: revisiting the model prototype ofinherited cancer. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2004 Aug 15;129C(1):23-8.Review.
    11. Richter S, Vandezande K, Chen N, Zhang K, Sutherland J, Anderson J, Han L,Panton R, Branco P, Gallie B. Sensitive and efficient detection of RB1 genemutations enhances care for families with retinoblastoma. Am J Hum Genet. 2003Feb;72(2):253-69.
    12. Sampieri K, Hadjistilianou T, Mari F, Speciale C, Mencarelli MA, Cetta F,Manoukian S, Peissel B, Giachino D, Pasini B, Acquaviva A, Caporossi A, FrezzottiR, Renieri A, Bruttini M. Mutational screening of the RB1 gene in Italianpatients with retinoblastoma reveals 11 novel mutations. J Hum Genet.2006;51(3):209-216. doi: 10.1007/s10038-005-0348-3.
    13. Wolff EM, Liang G, Jones PA. Mechanisms of Disease: genetic and epigeneticalterations that drive bladder cancer. Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2005Oct;2(10):502-10. Review.
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