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    Topic review

    Weill-Marchesani Syndrome

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    Submitted by: Bruce Ren
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    Weill-Marchesani syndrome is a disorder of connective tissue. Connective tissue forms the body's supportive framework, providing structure and strength to the muscles, joints, organs, and skin.

    1. Introduction

    The major signs and symptoms of Weill-Marchesani syndrome include short stature, eye abnormalities, unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), and joint stiffness. Adult height for men with Weill-Marchesani syndrome ranges from 4 feet, 8 inches to 5 feet, 6 inches. Adult height for women with this condition ranges from 4 feet, 3 inches to 5 feet, 2 inches.

    An eye abnormality called microspherophakia is characteristic of Weill-Marchesani syndrome. This term refers to a small, sphere-shaped lens, which is associated with nearsightedness (myopia) that worsens over time. The lens also may be positioned abnormally within the eye (ectopia lentis). Many people with Weill-Marchesani syndrome develop glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye and can lead to blindness.

    Occasionally, heart defects or an abnormal heart rhythm can occur in people with Weill-Marchesani syndrome.

    2. Frequency

    Weill-Marchesani syndrome appears to be rare; it has an estimated prevalence of 1 in 100,000 people.

    3. Causes

    Mutations in the ADAMTS10 and FBN1 genes can cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome. The ADAMTS10 gene provides instructions for making a protein whose function is unknown. This protein is important for normal growth before and after birth, and it appears to be involved in the development of the eyes, heart, and skeleton. Mutations in this gene disrupt the normal development of these structures, which leads to the specific features of Weill-Marchesani syndrome.

    A mutation in the FBN1 gene has also been found to cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome. The FBN1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called fibrillin-1. This protein is needed to form threadlike filaments, called microfibrils, that help provide strength and flexibility to connective tissue. The FBN1 mutation responsible for Weill-Marchesani syndrome leads to an unstable version of fibrillin-1. Researchers believe that the unstable protein interferes with the normal assembly of microfibrils, which weakens connective tissue and causes the abnormalities associated with Weill-Marchesani syndrome.

    In some people with Weill-Marchesani syndrome, no mutations in ADAMTS10 or FBN1 have been found. Researchers are looking for other genetic changes that may be responsible for the disorder in these people.

    4. Inheritance

    Weill-Marchesani syndrome can be inherited in either an autosomal recessive or an autosomal dominant pattern.

    When Weill-Marchesani syndrome is caused by mutations in the ADAMTS10 gene, it has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Autosomal recessive inheritance means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

    Other cases of Weill-Marchesani syndrome, including those caused by mutations in the FBN1 gene, have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Autosomal dominant inheritance means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. In most cases, an affected person inherits the genetic change from one parent with the condition.

    5. Other Names for This Condition

    • brachydactyly-spherophakia syndrome
    • brachymorphy with spherophakia syndrome
    • congenital mesodermal dysmorphodystrophy
    • Marchesani syndrome
    • Marchesani-Weill Syndrome
    • spherophakia-brachymorphia syndrome
    • WMS

    The entry is from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/weill-marchesani-syndrome

    References

    1. Cecchi A, Ogawa N, Martinez HR, Carlson A, Fan Y, Penny DJ, Guo DC, Eisenberg S, Safi H, Estrera A, Lewis RA, Meyers D, Milewicz DM. Missense mutations in FBN1exons 41 and 42 cause Weill-Marchesani syndrome with thoracic aortic disease and Marfan syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2013 Sep;161A(9):2305-10. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.36044.
    2. Dagoneau N, Benoist-Lasselin C, Huber C, Faivre L, Mégarbané A, Alswaid A,Dollfus H, Alembik Y, Munnich A, Legeai-Mallet L, Cormier-Daire V. ADAMTS10mutations in autosomal recessive Weill-Marchesani syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2004 Nov;75(5):801-6.
    3. Evereklioglu C, Hepsen IF, Er H. Weill-Marchesani syndrome in threegenerations. Eye (Lond). 1999 Dec;13 ( Pt 6):773-7. Review.
    4. Faivre L, Dollfus H, Lyonnet S, Alembik Y, Mégarbané A, Samples J, Gorlin RJ, Alswaid A, Feingold J, Le Merrer M, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V. Clinicalhomogeneity and genetic heterogeneity in Weill-Marchesani syndrome. Am J MedGenet A. 2003 Dec 1;123A(2):204-7. Review.
    5. Faivre L, Gorlin RJ, Wirtz MK, Godfrey M, Dagoneau N, Samples JR, Le Merrer M,Collod-Beroud G, Boileau C, Munnich A, Cormier-Daire V. In frame fibrillin-1 genedeletion in autosomal dominant Weill-Marchesani syndrome. J Med Genet. 2003Jan;40(1):34-6.
    6. Kojuri J, Razeghinejad MR, Aslani A. Cardiac findings in Weill-Marchesanisyndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2007 Sep 1;143A(17):2062-4.
    7. Kutz WE, Wang LW, Dagoneau N, Odrcic KJ, Cormier-Daire V, Traboulsi EI, ApteSS. Functional analysis of an ADAMTS10 signal peptide mutation inWeill-Marchesani syndrome demonstrates a long-range effect on secretion of thefull-length enzyme. Hum Mutat. 2008 Dec;29(12):1425-34. doi: 10.1002/humu.20797.
    8. Marzin P, Cormier-Daire V, Tsilou E. Weill-Marchesani Syndrome. 2007 Nov 1[updated 2020 Dec 10]. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, Wallace SE, Bean LJH, Stephens K, Amemiya A, editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): Universityof Washington, Seattle; 1993-2020. Available fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1114/
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