Applications of Conductive Electrospun Nanofiber Mats

Subjects: Nanotechnology

Conductive nanofiber mats can be used in a broad variety of applications, such as electromagnetic shielding, sensors, multifunctional textile surfaces, organic photovoltaics, or biomedicine. Here we give an overview of the most recent applications of such conductive electrospun nanofiber mats.

Electromagnetic Shielding

One of the large areas in which electrospun nanofiber mats are used is electromagnetic shielding. Typically, lightweight electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers are prepared as heterogeneous structures from magnetic and dielectric loss materials, with the heterogeneous structure supporting the interaction between an electromagnetic wave and absorber[1]. This results in a strong use of combinations of magnetic loss materials like magnetic metals with dielectric loss materials like carbon in different modifications for the preparation of lightweight EM composite absorbers, as depicted in Figure 1[2][3][4][5]. Nanofiber mats electrospun from other combinations such as ZnO/C are also reported to show good microwave absorption[6].

Materials 13 00152 g007 550

Figure 1. Electromagnetic wave absorption due to magnetic and dielectric losses. Reprinted from , with permission from Elsevier[2].

Energy Storage

Another application of conductive nanofiber mats are electrodes of lithium-ion batteries. Here again, metallic and carbon-based materials are often combined to gain a sufficient conductivity. Typically, the anode is prepared from MgFe2O4 in combination with graphene[7], carbon nanotubes[8] or graphene aerogel[9][10]. MoS2/carbon nanofiber membranes were prepared by needle-based electrospinning and carbonization of the PAN-based precursor and used as binder-free anodes for sodium-ion batteries[11].

Interlayers for Li-S batteries were prepared by Zhang et al., combining a reduced graphene oxide layer with BaTiO3 decorated carbon nanofibers prepared by electrospinning and subsequent calcination (Fig. 2), resulting in low resistances around 30 Ω in the fresh state and around 6 Ω after cycling, resulting in a high rate performance and cycling performance[12].


Materials 13 00152 g008 550

Figure 2. Pure BaTiO3@CNF interlayer and interlayer loaded with rGO. Reprinted from[12] , with permission from WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (a) BaTiO3@CNF interlayer; (b) rGO/BaTiO3@CNF interlayer in top view; (c) rGO/BaTiO3@CNF interlayer in side view.

Supercapacitors, on the other hand, can be created by firstly electrospinning TiO2 nanofibers from a solution of Ti(OC4O9)4 and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), followed by calcination to remove the polymer and retain the pure semiconductive nanofibers. Next, nitridization via ammonia annealing resulted in highly conductive TiN nanofibers. These nanofibers were afterward coated with MnO2 nanosheets, resulting in increased specific capacitance and cycle stability[13].

Electronic Components

Even memristors were produced by conductive nanofiber mats. Lapkin et al. used electrospinning to produce polyamide-6 nanofiber mats on which PAni was polymerized, resulting in a conductivity around 1 S/cm. Combined with a solid polymer electrolyte and a silver counter electrode, a memristor could be realized which showed resistive switching due to a voltage-controlled change in the PAni redox state[14]. Döpke et al. suggested producing conductive magnetic nanofiber mats for data storage and transfer[15].

Tissue Engineering and Cell Growth

Tissue engineering generally is often based on electrospun nanofiber mats. In order to engineer cardiac tissue, it is not only necessary to create porous nanofiber scaffolds, but these scaffolds should also mimic the extra-cellular matrix of the target tissue, i.e., should be conductive in case of growing cardiac muscle tissue on them with undisturbed intracellular signaling[16][17]. In general, scaffolds with embedded conductive materials often show advances against non-conductive nanofiber mats, whether prepared with PAni, PPy or CNTs[18][19][20].

Nekouian et al. report on conductive electrospun nanofiber mats, prepared from PCL/PPy/multi-wall CNTs which were used to examine the influence of electrical stimulation on the photoreceptor differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, showing that rhodopsin and peripherin gene expressions could significantly be increased by the electrical stimulation[21]. Rahmani et al. used silk fibroin nanofibers filled with conductive reduced graphene oxide, resulting in electrochemical series resistances around 20–30 Ω, to grow conjunctiva mesenchymal stem cells under electrical stimulation and found formation of neuron-like cell morphology and alignment along the electrical field[22]. PCL/PAni scaffolds with conductivities up to approximately 80 µS/cm were used by Garrudo et al. for the cultivation of neural stem cells, showing that the typical cell morphology was retained, and the nanofiber mats were biocompatible[23]. Even lower values of approximately 1 µS/cm were reported by Ghasemi et al. who doped electrospun polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nanofibers with graphene oxide to prepare cardiac patches for cardiac regeneration after myocardial infarcts[24]. For the same purpose, Walker et al. suggested using electrospun gelatin methacryloyl with bio-ionic liquid to combine adhesive and conductive properties[25].

Cell proliferation and gene expression could also be optimized by doping PAni scaffolds with graphene oxide and plasma treatment to hydrophilize the fiber surface[26]. Attachment, spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells was optimized by tailoring the concentration of multilayer graphene flakes in electrospun polyurethane nanofiber mats[27]. Embedding reduced graphene oxide in electrospun poly(ester amide) (PEA) and PEA/chitosan scaffolds increased cardiac differentiation[28]. Similarly, electrospinning PEO/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers showed a positive effect on neurite outgrowth, i.e., neural differentiation of neuron-like model cells, which is especially interesting since a spin-coated PEO/PEDOT:PSS film showed contact repulsion limiting cell attachment and proliferation (Figure 3)[29].

Materials 13 00152 g009 550

Figure 3. PC12 cells grown on aligned (ac,g) and random nanofibers (df,h), resulting in oriented or random neurites (i,j). Reprinted from[29] , with permission from WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

Osteoblast cells were found to grow and proliferate well on electrospun poly(L-lactic acid)/PAni/p-toluene sulfonic acid nanofiber mats[30]. Keratinocytes were shown to grow on electrospun PAN/PPy and PAN/PPy/CNT nanofiber mats[31]. Coating electrospun polyurethane nanofibers with PAni reduced the water contact angle significantly, resulted in a certain anticoagulant effect and was found supportive for cell adhesion, proliferation, and extension[32].

Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were prepared by coating an electrospun nanofiber mat with PEDOT:PSS. Juhász Junger et al. used several dip-coating steps to optimize the electrode conductivity while partly retaining the nanostructured surface and thus the large contact area with the neighboring layers (Fig. 4)[33]. The optimum number of layers resulted in a sheet resistance around 150 Ω, reduced from approximately 550 Ω for a single coating layer[33][34]. A similar approach was recently suggested by Kohn et al. who prepared fully electrospun DSSCs with both electrodes prepared by separately dip-coating them in PEDOT:PSS[35].

Materials 13 00152 g010 550

Figure 4. Current-voltage curves of DSSCs, prepared with different PEDOT:PSS counter electrodes. Reprinted from[33], originally published under a CC BY license.

Eslah and Nouri, on the other hand, used spin-coating of WO3 nanoparticles on electrospun PAN/PAni nanofibers to prepare counter electrodes of DSSCs[36]. For the possible use in LEDs and solar cells, Jiang et al. developed transparent conductive electrodes by electrospinning copper nanofibers and immersing them in silver ink as a protective layer, resulting in sheet resistances below 10 Ω[37].

Hydrogen Evolution

Another interesting application is hydrogen evolution. Sun et al. most recently prepared electrospun carbon/Ni/Mo2C nanofibers which were used as electrocatalysts in hydrogen evolution reaction in an alkaline electrolyte[38]. Li et al. used nitrogen-doped carbon/Ni nanofibers decorated with Pt for hydrogen evolution, resulting in a high electrochemical activity combined with reduced usage of Pt[39]. Zhang et al. prepared binder-free MoS2/carbon nanofiber electrodes by electrospinning and carbonization of the resulting nanofibers, allowing them to tailor the porosity chemically, which could be used for electrocatalytic hydrogen production[40]. Rheem et al. used a hierarchical structure of MoS2 nanosheets on conductive MoO2 nanofibers, gained by electrospinning, calcination, and sulfurization, to increase the hydrogen evolution reaction[41]. A similar hierarchical structure was prepared earlier by Liu et al. who used porous electrospun TiO2 nanofibers as a substrate for growing MoS2 nanosheets perpendicular to the nanofiber surfaces, resulting in high photocatalytic hydrogen production (Figure 5)[42].

Materials 13 00152 g011 550

Figure 5. Nucleation and growth of MoS2 nanosheets on porous TiO2 nanofibers. Reprinted from[42] , with permission from Elsevier.


Lee et al. used electrospun WO3 nanofibers coated with RuO2 nanorods as a sensor for H2O2 and L-ascorbic acid. They could show that by the addition of the RuO2 nanorods, the electrocatalytic activity was increased, and the sensing abilities were significantly improved in comparison with pure WO3 nanofibers, as shown in Figure 6[43].

Materials 13 00152 g012 550

Figure 6. The amperometric response of the WO3 nanofiber with RuO2 nanorods, showing the stability for detection of L-ascorbic acid (AA) against additions of diverse chemicals (A) and against time (B). Reprinted from[43], originally published under a CC BY license.

To sense dopamine, Ozoemena et al. used electrospun PAN/onion-like carbon nanofibers and found a high conductivity and sensitivity of the resulting nanofibers[44]. By electrospinning polystyrene/polyhydroxibutyrate filled with graphitized carbon and partly doped with porphyrin on an interdigitated electrode, Avossa et al. prepared gas sensors for volatile organic compounds[45].

Shaker et al. developed a polyurethane/PEDOT:PSS electrospun nanofiber mat which exhibited a resistance of approximately 3 kΩ and could be used as a reliable strain gauge sensor[46]. Yang et al. coated highly conductive MXene sheets on electrospun PU nanofibers mats to produce highly sensitive strain sensors[47]. Flexible strain sensors with up to 1000% elongation were prepared from conductively coated electrospun styrenebutadiene-styrene copolymer[48]. A similar stretchability was reached by Ren et al., electrospinning a thermoplastic polyurethane nanofiber mat with a wavelike structure, followed by wrapping CNTs around the nanofibers[49]. Wrapping conductive nanofiber yarn produced from graphene oxide-doped PAN nanofibers with in-situ polymerized PPy around elastic yarns results in high sensitivity and repeatability, in this way enabling detection or breathing or human motion[50].

Harjo et al. developed conductive fiber scaffolds by coating electrospun glucose-gelatin nanofiber mats with polypyrrole and investigated their electro-chemo-mechanical response, showing stable actuation for more than 100 cycles as well as reasonable sensor properties[51]. They found conductivities of approximately 3 µS/cm in the unstretched state and approximately half this value when stretched in aqueous or organic electrolyte solutions.

Table 1. Examples of electrical conductivities of nanofiber mats mentioned in this paper, sorted by conductivity.

Nanofiber Materials




0.35·× 10−9


Multi-wall CNTs in polystyrene



Polypyrrole/poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate)

0.5·× 10−6


Polyethylene terephthalate/graphene oxide

1·× 10−6


Glucose-gelatin coated with polypyrrole

3·× 10−6


Multi-wall CNTs in a polyurethane/silk

60·× 10−6



80·× 10−6


Camphoric acid doped PAni/poly(ethylene oxide)



PAN coated with multi-wall CNTs

3·× 10−3


Multi-wall CNTs/polyurethane






Poly(L-lactide acid) coated with chitosan/ polypyrrole



Fe3O4/polylactic acid-glycolic acid coated with pyrrole



Graphite in polystyrene



Polyamide-6 nanofiber mats coated with PAni









PU coated with p-toluenesulfonate doped PPy



Silver nanowires in polyvinyl alcohol



Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoro ethylene) coated with multi-wall CNTs and reduced graphene oxide




Generally, possible applications of electrospun nanofibers vary from biomedicine to sensors to batteries to hydrogen evolution. Similarly, the range of conductivities achievable with different methods is wide. This entry gives an overview of some recent applications.

The article has been published on 10.3390/ma13010152


  1. Xiaofang Liu; Chengcheng Hao; He Jiang; Min Zeng; Ronghai Yu; Hierarchical NiCo2O4/Co3O4/NiO porous composite: a lightweight electromagnetic wave absorber with tunable absorbing performance. Journal of Materials Chemistry C 2017, 5, 3770-3778, 10.1039/C6TC05167G.
  2. Meng, X.F.; Dong, S.H. Design and construction of lightweight C/Co heterojunction nanofibers for enhanced microwave absorption performance. J. Alloys Compd. 2019, 810, 151806.
  3. Wanxi Li; Hongxue Qi; Fang Guo; Yien Du; Ningjing Song; Yanyun Liu; Yongqiang Chen; Co nanoparticles supported on cotton-based carbon fibers: A novel broadband microwave absorbent. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2019, 772, 760-769, 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.09.075.
  4. Fengyi Wang; Yunqiang Sun; Deren Li; Bo Zhong; Zhiguo Wu; Shiyong Zuo; De Yan; Renfu Zhuo; Juanjuan Feng; Pengxun Yan; et al. Microwave absorption properties of 3D cross-linked Fe/C porous nanofibers prepared by electrospinning. Carbon 2018, 134, 264-273, 10.1016/j.carbon.2018.03.081.
  5. Huihui Liu; Yajing Li; Mengwei Yuan; Genban Sun; Qingliang Liao; Yue Zhang; Solid and macroporous Fe3C/N-C nanofibers with enhanced electromagnetic wave absorbability. Scientific Reports 2018, 8, 16832, 10.1038/s41598-018-35078-z.
  6. Weihua Gu; Jing Lv; Bin Quan; Xiaohui Liang; Baoshan Zhang; Guangbin Ji; Achieving MOF-derived one-dimensional porous ZnO/C nanofiber with lightweight and enhanced microwave response by an electrospinning method. Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2019, 806, 983-991, 10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.07.334.
  7. Yanhong Yin; Wenfeng Liu; Ningning Huo; Shuting Yang; Synthesis of Vesicle-Like MgFe2O4/Graphene 3D Network Anode Material with Enhanced Lithium Storage Performance. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 2017, 5, 563-570, 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01949.
  8. Clara Pereira; Rui S. Costa; Laury Lopes; Belen Bachiller-Baeza; Inmaculada Rodríguez-Ramos; Antonio Guerrero-Ruiz; Pedro B. Tavares; Cristina Freire; André M. Pereira; Multifunctional mixed valence N-doped [email protected] hybrid nanomaterials: from engineered one-pot coprecipitation to application in energy storage paper supercapacitors. Nanoscale 2018, 10, 12820-12840, 10.1039/c8nr03533d.
  9. Lei Luo; Zhi Chen; Huizhen Ke; Sha Sha; Guangming Cai; Dawei Li; Hongjun Yang; Xiaowei Yang; Ruquan Zhang; Jianqiang Li; et al. Facile synthesis of three-dimensional MgFe2O4/graphene aerogel composites for high lithium storage performance and its application in full cell. Materials & Design 2019, 182, 108043, 10.1016/j.matdes.2019.108043.
  10. Emery Brown; Pengli Yan; Halil Tekik; Ayyappan Elangovan; Jian Wang; Dong Lin; Jun Li; 3D printing of hybrid MoS2-graphene aerogels as highly porous electrode materials for sodium ion battery anodes. Materials & Design 2019, 170, 107689, 10.1016/j.matdes.2019.107689.
  11. Xiaoqin Xiong; Wei Luo; Xianluo Hu; Chaoji Chen; Long Qie; Dongfang Hou; Yunhui Huang; Flexible Membranes of MoS2/C Nanofibers by Electrospinning as Binder-Free Anodes for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries. Scientific Reports 2015, 5, 9254, 10.1038/srep09254.
  12. Shaoqiong Zhang; Xianying Qin; Yuanming Liu; Lihan Zhang; Ngqing Liu; Yue Xia; Hua Zhu; Baohua Li; Feiyu Kang; A Conductive/Ferroelectric Hybrid Interlayer for Highly Improved Trapping of Polysulfides in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries. Advanced Materials Interfaces 2019, 6, 1900984, 10.1002/admi.201900984.
  13. Kaibing Xu; Yuenian Shen; Ke Zhang; Fang Yang; Shijie Li; Junqing Hu; Hierarchical assembly of manganese dioxide nanosheets on one-dimensional titanium nitride nanofibers for high-performance supercapacitors.. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2019, 552, 712-718, 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.05.093.
  14. D.A. Lapkin; S.N. Malakhov; V.A. Demin; S.N. Chvalun; L.A. Feigin; Hybrid polyaniline/polyamide-6 fibers and nonwoven materials for assembling organic memristive elements. Synthetic Metals 2019, 254, 63-67, 10.1016/j.synthmet.2019.05.016.
  15. Christoph Döpke; Timo Grothe; Pawel Steblinski; Michaela Klöcker; Lilia Sabantina; Dorota Kosmalska; Tomasz Blachowicz; Andrea Ehrmann; Magnetic Nanofiber Mats for Data Storage and Transfer. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 92, 10.3390/nano9010092.
  16. Taimoor Hasan Qazi; Ranjana Rai; Dirk Dippold; Judith E. Roether; Dirk W. Schubert; Elisabetta Rosellini; Niccoletta Barbani; Aldo R. Boccaccini; Development and characterization of novel electrically conductive PANI–PGS composites for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Acta Biomaterialia 2014, 10, 2434-2445, 10.1016/j.actbio.2014.02.023.
  17. Ana M. Martins; George Eng; Sofia G. Caridade; João F. Mano; Rui L. Reis; Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic; Electrically Conductive Chitosan/Carbon Scaffolds for Cardiac Tissue Engineering. Biomacromolecules 2014, 15, 635-643, 10.1021/bm401679q.
  18. Baolin Guo; Peter X. Ma; Conducting Polymers for Tissue Engineering. Biomacromolecules 2018, 19, 1764-1782, 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b00276.
  19. Molamma P. Prabhakaran; Laleh Ghasemi-Mobarakeh; Guorui Jin; Seeram Ramakrishna; Electrospun conducting polymer nanofibers and electrical stimulation of nerve stem cells. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 2011, 112, 501-507, 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2011.07.010.
  20. Yaobin Wu; Ling Wang; Baolin Guo; Peter X Ma; Interwoven Aligned Conductive Nanofiber Yarn/Hydrogel Composite Scaffolds for Engineered 3D Cardiac Anisotropy. ACS Nano 2017, 11, 5646-5659, 10.1021/acsnano.7b01062.
  21. Nekouian, S.; Sojoodi, M.; Nadri, S.; Fabrication of conductive fibrous scaffold for photoreceptor differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell. J. Cell. Physiol 2019, 234, 15800–15808, 10.1002/jcp.28238.
  22. Rahmani, A.; Nadri, S.; Kazemi, H.S.; Mortazavi, Y.; Sojoodi, M; Conductive electrospun scaffolds with electrical stimulation for neural differentiation of conjunctiva mesenchymal stem cells. Artif. Organs 2019, 43, 780–790, 10.1111/aor.13425.
  23. Fábio F.F. Garrudo; Caitlyn A. Chapman; Pauline R. Hoffman; Ranodhi W. Udangawa; João C. Silva; Paiyz E. Mikael; Carlos A.V. Rodrigues; Joaquim M.S. Cabral; Jorge M.F. Morgado; Frederico C. Ferreira; et al. Polyaniline-polycaprolactone blended nanofibers for neural cell culture. European Polymer Journal 2019, 117, 28-37, 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2019.04.048.
  24. Azin Ghasemi; Rana Imani; Maryam Yousefzadeh; Shahin Bonakdar; Atefeh Solouk; Hossein Fakhrzadeh; Studying the Potential Application of Electrospun Polyethylene Terephthalate/Graphene Oxide Nanofibers as Electroconductive Cardiac Patch. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 2019, 304, 1900187, 10.1002/mame.201900187.
  25. Brian W. Walker; Roberto Portillo Lara; Chu Hsiang Yu; Ehsan Shirzaei Sani; William Kimball; Shannon Joyce; Nasim Annabi; Engineering a naturally-derived adhesive and conductive cardiopatch.. Biomaterials 2019, 207, 89-101, 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.03.015.
  26. Neda Almasi; Simzar Hosseinzadeh; Shadie Hatamie; Gholamreza Taheri Sangsari; Stable conductive and biocompatible scaffold development using graphene oxide (GO) doped polyaniline (PANi). International Journal of Polymeric Materials and Polymeric Biomaterials 2019, no, 1-11, 10.1080/00914037.2019.1628028.
  27. Saeid Bahrami; Atefeh Solouk; Hamid Mirzadeh; Alexander M. Seifalian; Electroconductive polyurethane/graphene nanocomposite for biomedical applications. Composites Part B: Engineering 2019, 168, 421-431, 10.1016/j.compositesb.2019.03.044.
  28. Hilary Stone; Shigang Lin; Kibret Mequanint; Preparation and characterization of electrospun rGO-poly(ester amide) conductive scaffolds.. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2018, 98, 324-332, 10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.122.
  29. Nien-Chen Tsai; Jia-Wei She; Jhih-Guang Wu; Peilin Chen; Yu-Sheng Hsiao; Jiashing Yu; Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Polymer Composite Bioelectrodes with Designed Chemical and Topographical Cues to Manipulate the Behavior of PC12 Neuronal Cells. Advanced Materials Interfaces 2019, 6, 1801576, 10.1002/admi.201801576.
  30. Junyan Yao; Yifu Chen; Wudan Li; Xiao Chen; Xiaodong Fan; Fabrication and characterization of electrospun PLLA/PANI/TSA fibers. RSC Advances 2019, 9, 5610-5619, 10.1039/c8ra10495f.
  31. Atike Ince Yardimci; Hande Aypek; Ozgur Ozturk; Selahattin Yilmaz; Engin Ozcivici; Gulistan Mese; Yusuf Selamet; CNT Incorporated Polyacrilonitrile/Polypyrrole Nanofibers as Keratinocytes Scaffold. Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering 2019, 41, 69-81, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/jbbbe.41.69.
  32. Yumei Li; Rui Zhao; Xiang Li; Chuying Wang; Huiwei Bao; Shudan Wang; Jing Fang; Jinqiu Huang; Ce Wang; Blood-compatible Polyaniline Coated Electrospun Polyurethane Fiber Scaffolds for Enhanced Adhesion and Proliferation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. Fibers and Polymers 2019, 20, 250-260, 10.1007/s12221-019-8735-0.
  33. Irén Juhász Junger; Daria Wehlage; Robin Böttjer; Timo Grothe; László Juhász; Carsten Grassmann; Tomasz Blachowicz; Andrea Ehrmann; Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Electrospun Nanofiber Mat-Based Counter Electrodes. Materials 2018, 11, 1604, 10.3390/ma11091604.
  34. László Juhász; Irén Juhász Junger; Spectral Analysis and Parameter Identification of Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. Materials 2018, 11, 1623, 10.3390/ma11091623.
  35. Sophia Kohn; Daria Wehlage; Irén Juhász Junger; Andrea Ehrmann; Kohn; Juhász Junger; Electrospinning a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell. Catalysts 2019, 9, 975, 10.3390/catal9120975.
  36. Sanaz Eslah; Mahdi Nouri; Synthesis and Characterization of Tungsten Trioxide/Polyaniline/Polyacrylonitrile Composite Nanofibers for Application as a Counter Electrode of DSSCs. Russian Journal of Electrochemistry 2019, 55, 291-304, 10.1134/s1023193519030054.
  37. Dai-Hua Jiang; Ping-Chun Tsai; Chi Ching Kuo; Fu-Cheng Jhuang; Hao-Cheng Guo; Shih-Pin Chen; Ying-Chih Liao; Toshifumi Satoh; Shih-Huang Tung; Facile Preparation of Cu/Ag Core/Shell Electrospun Nanofibers as Highly Stable and Flexible Transparent Conductive Electrodes for Optoelectronic Devices. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 2019, 11, 10118-10127, 10.1021/acsami.8b18366.
  38. Jianhang Sun; Jiangnan Liu; Han Chen; Xu Han; Yun Wu; Jin He; Ce Han; Guocheng Yang; Yuping Shan; Strongly coupled Mo2C and Ni nanoparticles with in-situ formed interfaces encapsulated by porous carbon nanofibers for efficient hydrogen evolution reaction under alkaline conditions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2020, 558, 100-105, 10.1016/j.jcis.2019.09.102.
  39. Meixuan Li; Yun Zhu; Na Song; Ce Wang; Xiaofeng Lu; Fabrication of Pt nanoparticles on nitrogen-doped carbon/Ni nanofibers for improved hydrogen evolution activity. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2018, 514, 199-207, 10.1016/j.jcis.2017.12.028.
  40. Zexia Zhang; Yuanxi Wang; Xiangxing Leng; Vincent H. Crespi; Feiyu Kang; Ruitao Lv; Controllable Edge Exposure of MoS2 for Efficient Hydrogen Evolution with High Current Density. ACS Applied Energy Materials 2018, 1, 1268-1275, 10.1021/acsaem.8b00010.
  41. Youngwoo Rheem; Yosep Han; Kyu-Hwan Lee; Sung-Mook Choi; Nosang Myung; Synthesis of hierarchical MoO2/MoS2 nanofibers for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Nanotechnology 2017, 28, 105605, 10.1088/1361-6528/aa5c2f.
  42. Chengbin Liu; Longlu Wang; Yanhong Tang; Shenglian Luo; Yutang Liu; Shuqu Zhang; Yunxiong Zeng; Yuzi Xu; Vertical single or few-layer MoS2 nanosheets rooting into TiO2 nanofibers for highly efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 2015, 164, 1-9, 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.08.046.
  43. Hyerim Lee; Yeomin Kim; Areum Yu; Dasol Jin; Ara Jo; Youngmi Lee; Myung Hwa Kim; Chongmok Lee; An Efficient Electrochemical Sensor Driven by Hierarchical Hetero-Nanostructures Consisting of RuO2 Nanorods on WO3 Nanofibers for Detecting Biologically Relevant Molecules.. Sensors 2019, 19, 3295, 10.3390/s19153295.
  44. Okoroike C. Ozoemena; Leshweni J. Shai; Tobile Maphumulo; Kenneth I. Ozoemena; Electrochemical Sensing of Dopamine Using Onion-like Carbons and Their Carbon Nanofiber Composites. Electrocatalysis 2019, 10, 381-391, 10.1007/s12678-019-00520-x.
  45. Joshua Avossa; Roberto Paolesse; Corrado Di Natale; Emiliano Zampetti; Giovanni Bertoni; Fabrizio De Cesare; Giuseppe Scarascia-Mugnozza; Antonella Macagnano; Electrospinning of Polystyrene/Polyhydroxybutyrate Nanofibers Doped with Porphyrin and Graphene for Chemiresistor Gas Sensors. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 280, 10.3390/nano9020280.
  46. Ahmed Shaker; Ahmed Hassanin; Nagih Shaalan; Mohsen Hassan; Ahmed Abdelmoneim; Micropatterned flexible strain gauge sensor based on wet electrospun polyurethane/PEDOT:PSS nanofibers. Smart Materials and Structures 2019, 28, 075029, 10.1088/1361-665x/ab20a2.
  47. Kai Yang; Fuxing Yin; Dan Xia; Huifen Peng; Jinzheng Yang; Wenjing Yuan; A highly flexible and multifunctional strain sensor based on a network-structured MXene/polyurethane mat with ultra-high sensitivity and a broad sensing range. Nanoscale 2019, 11, 9949-9957, 10.1039/c9nr00488b.
  48. Nazanin Khalili; Marco Chu; Hani E Naguib; Solvent-assisted electrospun fibers with ultrahigh stretchability and strain sensing capabilities. Smart Materials and Structures 2019, 28, 055018, 10.1088/1361-665x/ab0d4d.
  49. Miaoning Ren; Yujie Zhou; Yan Wang; Guoqiang Zheng; Kun Dai; Chuntai Liu; Changyu Shen; Highly stretchable and durable strain sensor based on carbon nanotubes decorated thermoplastic polyurethane fibrous network with aligned wave-like structure. Chemical Engineering Journal 2019, 360, 762-777, 10.1016/j.cej.2018.12.025.
  50. Nan Nan; Jianxin He; Xiaolu You; Xianqiang Sun; Yuman Zhou; Kun Qi; Weili Shao; Fan Liu; Yanyan Chu; Bin Ding; et al. A Stretchable, Highly Sensitive, and Multimodal Mechanical Fabric Sensor Based on Electrospun Conductive Nanofiber Yarn for Wearable Electronics. Advanced Materials Technologies 2018, 4, 1088338, 10.1002/admt.201800338.
  51. Madis Harjo; Zane Zondaka; Kaur Leemets; Martin Järvekülg; Tarmo Tamm; Rudolf Kiefer; Polypyrrole‐coated fiber‐scaffolds: Concurrent linear actuation and sensing. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2019, 137, no, 10.1002/app.48533.
  52. Jéssyka Carolina Bittencourt; Bruno Henrique De Santana Gois; Vinicius Jessé Rodrigues De Oliveira; Deuber Lincon Da Silva Agostini; Clarissa De Almeida Olivati; Gas sensor for ammonia detection based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and polyaniline electrospun. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2018, 136, 47288., 10.1002/app.47288.
  53. Wang, J.; Naguib, H.E.; Bazylak, A. Electrospun porous conductive polymer membranes. In Proceedings of the SPIE—The International Society for Optical Engineering, San Diego, CA, USA, 11–15 March 2012.
  54. Derya Akcoren; Merih Zeynep Avci; Zeliha Guler Gokce; Timucin Balkan; A. Sezai Sarac; Fabrication and characterization of poly(butyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole nanofibers. Polymer Bulletin 2017, 75, 1607-1617, 10.1007/s00289-017-2110-3.
  55. Sita Shrestha; Bishnu Kumar Shrestha; Joshua Lee; Oh. Kwang Joong; Beom-Su Kim; Chan Hee Park; Cheol Sang Kim; A conducting neural interface of polyurethane/silk-functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes with enhanced mechanical strength for neuroregeneration.. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2019, 102, 511-523, 10.1016/j.msec.2019.04.053.
  56. Wangcheng Liu; Jinwen Zhang; Hang Liu; Conductive Bicomponent Fibers Containing Polyaniline Produced via Side-by-Side Electrospinning.. Polymers 2019, 11, 954, 10.3390/polym11060954.
  57. Yao Li; Aleksander Góra; Franklin Anariba; Avinash Baji; Enhanced tensile strength and electrical conductivity of electrospun polyacrylonitrile Yarns via post‐treatment. Polymer Composites 2018, 40, 1702-1707, 10.1002/pc.24920.
  58. Nasim Shokraei; Shiva Asadpour; Shabnam Shokraei; Mehrdad Nasrollahzadeh Sabet; Reza Faridi‐Majidi; Hossein Ghanbari; Development of electrically conductive hybrid nanofibers based on CNT-polyurethane nanocomposite for cardiac tissue engineering.. Microscopy Research and Technique 2019, 82, 1316-1325, 10.1002/jemt.23282.
  59. Yaxuan Xu; Zhongbing Huang; Ximing Pu; Guangfu Yin; Jiankai Zhang; Fabrication of Chitosan/Polypyrrole-coated poly(L-lactic acid)/Polycaprolactone aligned fibre films for enhancement of neural cell compatibility and neurite growth.. Cell Proliferation 2019, 52, e12588, 10.1111/cpr.12588.
  60. Yongqiang Guo; Lulu Pan; Xutong Yang; Kunpeng Ruan; Yixin Han; Jie Kong; Junwei Gu; Simultaneous improvement of thermal conductivities and electromagnetic interference shielding performances in polystyrene composites via constructing interconnection oriented networks based on electrospinning technology. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 2019, 124, 105484., 10.1016/j.compositesa.2019.105484.
  61. Tianya Li; Yulong Xu; Kejian Wang; Jinghui Song; Hengwei Hu; Han Liu; Yueqi Liu; Yong Liu; Jing Wu; Haohong Pi; et al. Preparation and performance of hydrophobic and conductive silica composite fiber membrane. Journal of Materials Science 2019, 55, 191-202, 10.1007/s10853-019-04015-4.
  62. Alexis Laforgue; Lucie Robitaille; Production of Conductive PEDOT Nanofibers by the Combination of Electrospinning and Vapor-Phase Polymerization. Macromolecules 2010, 43, 4194-4200, 10.1021/ma9027678.
  63. Seyed Vahid Ebadi; Dariush Semnani; Hossein Fashandi; Behzad Rezaei; Synthesis and characterization of a novel polyurethane/polypyrrole‐p‐toluenesulfonate (PU/PPy‐pTS) electroactive nanofibrous bending actuator. Polymers for Advanced Technologies 2019, 30, 2261-2274, 10.1002/pat.4655.
  64. Kiran Yadav; Ratyakshi Nain; Manjeet Jassal; Ashwini K. Agrawal; Free standing flexible conductive PVA nanoweb with well aligned silver nanowires. Composites Science and Technology 2019, 182, 107766, 10.1016/j.compscitech.2019.107766.
  65. Arsalan Ahmed; Yunming Jia; Yi Huang; Nazakat Ali Khoso; Hridam Deb; Qinguo Fan; Jianzhong Shao; Preparation of PVDF-TrFE based electrospun nanofibers decorated with PEDOT-CNT/rGO composites for piezo-electric pressure sensor. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics 2019, 30, 14007-14021, 10.1007/s10854-019-01751-w.

Cite this article

Andrea, Ehrmann; Tomasz, BLACHOWICZ. Applications of Conductive Electrospun Nanofiber Mats, Encyclopedia, 2020, v2, Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/528