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    Topic review

    PRPH2 Gene

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    Submitted by: Karina Chen
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    peripherin 2

    1. Normal Function

    The PRPH2 gene (also known as RDS) provides instructions for making a protein called peripherin 2. This protein plays an important role in normal vision. Peripherin 2 is found in the retina, the light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye. This protein is essential for the normal function of specialized cells called photoreceptors that detect light and color. Within these cells, peripherin 2 is involved in the formation and stability of structures that contain light-sensing pigments.

    2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

    2.1. Vitelliform macular dystrophy

    Mutations in the PRPH2 gene are responsible for some cases of adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy. Several mutations have been identified in people with this disorder, most of which change a single protein building block (amino acid) in peripherin 2. These mutations alter the protein's structure or lead to the production of an abnormally short, nonfunctional version of the protein. When peripherin 2 is altered or missing, photoreceptors break down (degenerate) over time. This loss of photoreceptors underlies the retinal abnormalities and progressive vision loss characteristic of vitelliform macular dystrophy. It is unclear why PRPH2 mutations affect only central vision in people with this disorder.

    2.2. Other retinal dystrophies

    Mutations in the PRPH2 gene cause a variety of other retinal disorders. Each of these conditions involves a slow degeneration of photoreceptor cells, leading to progressive vision loss. A total of more than 100 mutations in the PRPH2 gene have been identified. Many of these mutations cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disease that first disrupts night vision and side (peripheral) vision and eventually may result in blindness. PRPH2 mutations also cause a group of retinal disorders called pattern dystrophies of the retinal pigment epithelium. These disorders typically begin in mid-adulthood and are characterized by an abnormal buildup of pigment in cells underlying the retina.

    Some PRPH2 mutations can cause different eye disorders in affected members of the same family. For example, researchers have reported a family with retinitis pigmentosa, pattern dystrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium, and retinitis punctata albescens (an eye disorder similar to retinitis pigmentosa) in different individuals with the same PRPH2 mutation. It is unclear why mutations in this gene cause such a wide range of retinal abnormalities.

    3. Other Names for This Gene

    • CACD2

    • peripherin 2 (retinal degeneration, slow)

    • peripherin 2, homolog of mouse

    • peripherin, photoreceptor type

    • PRPH2_HUMAN

    • RDS

    • retinal degeneration slow protein

    • retinal degeneration, slow

    • Tetraspanin-22

    • TSPAN22

    The entry is from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/prph2

    References

    1. Boon CJ, den Hollander AI, Hoyng CB, Cremers FP, Klevering BJ, Keunen JE. The spectrum of retinal dystrophies caused by mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene.Prog Retin Eye Res. 2008 Mar;27(2):213-35. doi: 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2008.01.002.
    2. Chung M, Lotery AJ. Genetics update of macular diseases. Ophthalmol Clin NorthAm. 2002 Dec;15(4):459-65. Review.
    3. Felbor U, Schilling H, Weber BH. Adult vitelliform macular dystrophy isfrequently associated with mutations in the peripherin/RDS gene. Hum Mutat.1997;10(4):301-9.
    4. Francis PJ, Schultz DW, Gregory AM, Schain MB, Barra R, Majewski J, Ott J,Acott T, Weleber RG, Klein ML. Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in patterndystrophy. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep;89(9):1115-9.
    5. Michaelides M, Holder GE, Bradshaw K, Hunt DM, Moore AT. Cone-rod dystrophy,intrafamilial variability, and incomplete penetrance associated with the R172Wmutation in the peripherin/RDS gene. Ophthalmology. 2005 Sep;112(9):1592-8.
    6. Sohocki MM, Daiger SP, Bowne SJ, Rodriquez JA, Northrup H, Heckenlively JR,Birch DG, Mintz-Hittner H, Ruiz RS, Lewis RA, Saperstein DA, Sullivan LS.Prevalence of mutations causing retinitis pigmentosa and other inheritedretinopathies. Hum Mutat. 2001;17(1):42-51.
    7. Wang Q, Chen Q, Zhao K, Wang L, Wang L, Traboulsi EI. Update on the molecular genetics of retinitis pigmentosa. Ophthalmic Genet. 2001 Sep;22(3):133-54.Review.
    8. Wells J, Wroblewski J, Keen J, Inglehearn C, Jubb C, Eckstein A, Jay M, Arden G, Bhattacharya S, Fitzke F, et al. Mutations in the human retinal degenerationslow (RDS) gene can cause either retinitis pigmentosa or macular dystrophy. NatGenet. 1993 Mar;3(3):213-8.
    9. Yang Z, Li Y, Jiang L, Karan G, Moshfeghi D, O'Connor S, Li X, Yu Z, Lewis H, Zack D, Jacobson S, Zhang K. A novel RDS/peripherin gene mutation associated withdiverse macular phenotypes. Ophthalmic Genet. 2004 Jun;25(2):133-45.
    10. Yang Z, Lin W, Moshfeghi DM, Thirumalaichary S, Li X, Jiang L, Zhang H, Zhang S, Kaiser PK, Traboulsi EI, Zhang K. A novel mutation in the RDS/Peripherin gene causes adult-onset foveomacular dystrophy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003Feb;135(2):213-8.
    11. Zhang K, Garibaldi DC, Li Y, Green WR, Zack DJ. Butterfly-shaped patterndystrophy: a genetic, clinical, and histopathological report. Arch Ophthalmol.2002 Apr;120(4):485-90.
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