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    Topic review

    Linoleic Acid

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    Definition

    The purpose of this entry was to summarize human intervention trials that investigated the effects of linoleic acid consumption on lipid risk markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy individuals. It also provided mechanistic details, and dietary recommendations for linoleic acid. Future research directions were also discussed. The findings from this entry demonstrated that linoleic acid consumption decreases CVD risk markers in healthy individuals.  

    1. Introduction

    Linoleic acid (LA) is an essential omega-6 (or n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)[1][2][3]. It has been suggested that replacement of saturated fat with LA decreases serum cholesterol, but does not decrease the risk of death from coronary heart disease (CHD)[4]. Additionally, there has been concern that consuming high amounts of LA may increase the risk of inflammation[5]. Therefore, this entry reviewed human intervention trials in which cardiovascular disease lipid risk markers were analyzed following consumption of LA. The results will provide insights regarding recommendations of LA to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease. 

    2. Sources

    2.1. Oil Sources 

    Table 1. Oil sources of linoleic acid (per 100 g) 1.

    Oils

    Energy (Kcal)

    Total Lipid (g)

    Linoleic Acid (g)

    Alpha-Linolenic Acid (g)

    Total Saturated

    Fat (g)

    Canola oil

    884

    100

    18.6

    9.14

    7.37

    Corn oil

    900

    100

    53.5

    1.16

    13.0

    Cottonseed oil

    884

    100

    51.9

    0.20

    25.9

    Grapeseed oil

    884

    100

    69.6

    0.10

    9.60

    Olive oil

    884

    100

    9.76

    0.76

    13.8

    Peanut oil

    884

    100

    32.0

    0.00

    16.9

    Safflower oil

    884

    100

    12.7

    0.10

    7.54

    Sesame oil

    884

    100

    41.3

    0.30

    14.2

    Soybean oil

    884

    100

    51.0

    6.79

    15.7

    Sunflower oil

    884

    100

    65.7

    0.00

    10.3

    Walnut oil

    884

    100

    52.9

    10.4

    9.10

    1 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Data Central[6].

    2.2. Food sources

    Table 2. Food sources of linoleic acid (per 1 ounce [28.3495 g]) 1.

    Food Sources

    Energy (Kcal)

    Total Lipid (g)

    Linoleic Acid (g)

    Alpha-Linolenic Acid (g)

    Total Saturated Fat (g)

    Almonds

    164

    14.2

    3.49

    0.001

    1.08

    Brazil nuts

    185

    18.8

    6.82

    0.01

    4.52

    Cashews

    157

    12.4

    2.21

    0.018

    2.21

    Pecans

    196

    20.4

    5.85

    0.28

    1.75

    Pine nuts

    191

    19.4

    9.4

    0.046

    1.39

    Pistachios

    159

    12.8

    4.0

    0.082

    1.68

    Pumpkin seeds

    163

    13.9

    5.55

    0.031

    2.42

    Sesame seeds

    159

    13.4

    5.78

    0.102

    1.88

    Sunflower seeds

    165

    14.1

    9.29

    0.02

    1.48

    Walnuts

    185

    18.5

    10.8

    2.57

    1.74

    1 Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Data Central[6].

    This entry is adapted from 10.3390/nu12082329

    References

    1. Jandacek, R.J. Linoleic acid: A nutritional quandary. Healthcare 2017, 5, 25.
    2. Harris, W.S.; Mozaffarian, D.; Rimm, E.; Kris-Etherton, P.; Rudel, L.L.; Appel, L.J.; Engler, M.M.; Engler, M.B.; Sacks, F. Omega-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: A science advisory from the American heart association nutrition subcommittee of the council on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism; council on cardiovascular nursing; and council on epidemiology and prevention. Circulation 2009, 119, 902–907.
    3. Vannice, G.; Rasmussen, H. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: Dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 2014, 114, 136–153.
    4. Christopher E Ramsden; Daisy Zamora; Sharon Majchrzak-Hong; Keturah R Faurot; Steven K Broste; Robert P Frantz; John M Davis; Amit Ringel; Chirayath M Suchindran; Joseph R Hibbeln; et al. Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73). BMJ 2016, 353, 1246, 10.1136/bmj.i1246.
    5. Jay Whelan; Kevin Fritsche; Linoleic Acid1. Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal 2013, 4, 311-312, 10.3945/an.113.003772.
    6. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Food Data Central. Available online: https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/ (accessed on 15 June 2020).
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