- Please check and comment entries here.
Four Strategies to Prevent Metabolic Syndrom
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of biochemical and physical conditions associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases. Excess abdominal fat is most closely associated with metabolic risk factors and is most likely the initiating factor of risk factor clustering in MetS. These risk factors, namely, impaired blood glucose, dyslipidaemia, and raised blood pressure, are symptoms of metabolic chaos inside the body.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of biochemical and physical conditions associated with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases . Excess abdominal fat is most closely associated with metabolic risk factors and is most likely the initiating factor of risk factor clustering in MetS . These risk factors, namely, impaired blood glucose, dyslipidaemia, and raised blood pressure, are symptoms of metabolic chaos inside the body. A high carbohydrate diet, inadequate hydration, a poor sleeping pattern, and overnutrition were described as strong modifiable risk factors for MetS . Hence, MetS became an ideal target of lifestyle-focused interventions.
Group-based interventions have been documented to manage various metabolic conditions, especially among those with T2D and obesity . Although evidence suggests that group interventions have a therapeutic benefit beyond providing patients with information and education, studies on its effectiveness need further exploration . For example, while group-based programs effectively improved clinical, lifestyle, and psychosocial outcomes among patients with T2D , the interventions themselves have been poorly documented . The designs and effectiveness of these interventions also tend to vary considerably among the studies . However, interventions underpinned with a theoretical framework, education, and social support tend to be more efficacious .
In addition to that, peer support has become a common aspect of group-based interventions. While not all group-based interventions use the peer support framework, it has been shown to have beneficial effects on intervention outcomes. Peer support in lifestyle interventions has provided a space for healthcare providers or trained peer leaders to deliver extensive health education and self-management instruction while also allowing for increased adoption and productivity . Peer support combines the benefits of receiving and providing social support, making it superiorly beneficial for adults with similar chronic diseases who need a lifestyle change .
2. Four Strategies
2.1. Critical Point 1: Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome
2.2. Critical Point 2: Detection and Diagnosis
2.3. Critical Point 3: Follow-Up
2.4. Critical Point 4: Quality of Care and Coordination of Care
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/medicina57111169
- Alberti, K.G.; Zimmet, P.; Shaw, J. Metabolic syndrome—A new worldwide definition. A consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet. Med. 2006, 23, 469–480.
- Bassand, J.P. Managing cardiovascular risk in patients with metabolic syndrome. Clin. Cornerstone 2006, 8, S7–S14.
- Lim, K.G.; Cheah, W.K. A review of metabolic syndrome research in Malaysia. Med. J. Malays. 2016, 71, 20–28.
- Odgers-Jewell, K.; Ball, L.E.; Kelly, J.T.; Isenring, E.A.; Riedlinger, D.P.; Thomas, R. Effectiveness of group-based self-management education for individuals with Type 2 diabetes: A systematic review with meta-analyses and meta-regression. Diabet. Med. 2017, 34, 1027–1039.
- Borek, A.J.; Abraham, C.; Greaves, C.J.; Tarrant, M. Group-based diet and physical activity weight-loss interventions: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Appl. Psychol. Health Well Being 2018, 10, 62–86.
- Swancutt, D.; Tarrant, M.; Pinkney, J. How group-based interventions can improve services for people with severe obesity. Curr. Obes. Rep. 2019, 8, 333–339.
- Odgers-Jewell, K.; Ball, L.E.; Reidlinger, D.P.; Isenring, E.A.; Thomas, R.; Kelly, J.T. Replicating group-based education interventions for the management of type 2 diabetes: A review of intervention reporting. Diabet. Med. 2020, 37, 768–778.
- Cleland, C.L.; Tully, M.A.; Kee, F.; Cupples, M.E. The effectiveness of physical activity interventions in socio-economically disadvantaged communities: A systematic review. Prev. Med. 2012, 54, 371–380.
- Webel, A.R.; Okonsky, J.; Trompeta, J.; Holzemer, W.L. A systematic review of the effectiveness of peer-based interventions on health-related behaviors in adults. Am. J. Public Health 2010, 100, 247–253.
- Benziger, C.P.; Roth, G.A.; Moran, A.E. The global burden of disease study and the preventable burden of NCD. Glob. Heart 2016, 11, 393–397.
- Ministry of Health. National Strategic Plan for Non-Communicable Disease (NSP-NCD) 2016–2025; Ministry of Health: Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2016.
- Funnell, M.M. Peer-based behavioural strategies to improve chronic disease self-management and clinical outcomes: Evidence, logistics, evaluation considerations and needs for future research. Fam. Pract. 2010, 27, i17–i22.
- Kudo, Y.; Okada, M.; Tsunoda, M.; Satoh, T.; Aizawa, Y. A lifestyle to prevent or combat the metabolic syndrome among Japanese workers: Analyses using the health belief model and the multidimensional health locus of control. Ind. Health 2011, 49, 365–373.
- Doshmangir, P.; Jahangiry, L.; Farhangi, M.A.; Doshmangir, L.; Faraji, L. The effectiveness of theory- and model-based lifestyle interventions on HbA1c among patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Public Health 2018, 155, 133–141.
- Martin, C.A.; Gowda, U.; Smith, B.J.; Renzaho, A.M.N. Systematic review of the effect of lifestyle interventions on the components of the metabolic syndrome in South Asian migrants. J. Immigr. Minor. Health 2018, 20, 231–244.
- Lin, C.H.; Chiang, S.L.; Tzeng, W.C.; Chiang, L.C. Systematic review of impact of lifestyle-modification programs on metabolic risks and patient-reported outcomes in adults with metabolic syndrome. Worldviews Evid. Based Nurs. 2014, 11, 361–368.
- Seidu, S.; Walker, N.S.; Bodicoat, D.H.; Davies, M.J.; Khunti, K. A systematic review of interventions targeting primary care or community based professionals on cardio-metabolic risk factor control in people with diabetes. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 2016, 113, 1–13.
- Rodrigues, A.L.; Ball, J.; Ski, C.; Stewart, S.; Carrington, M.J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of primary prevention programmes to improve cardio-metabolic risk in non-urban communities. Prev. Med. 2016, 87, 22–34.
- Yamaoka, K.; Tango, T. Effects of lifestyle modification on metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2012, 10, 138.
- Bassi, N.; Karagodin, I.; Wang, S.; Vassallom, P.; Priyanath, A.; Massaro, E.; Stone, N.J. Lifestyle modification for metabolic syndrome: A systematic review. Am. J. Med. 2014, 127, e1–e10.
- Su, T.T.; Majid, H.A.; Nahar, A.M.; Azizan, N.A.; Mohd Hairi, F.; Thangiah, N.; Dahlui, M.; Bulgiba, A.; Murray, L.J. The effectiveness of a life style modification and peer support home blood pressure monitoring in control of hypertension: Protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2014, 14, S4.
- Van Olmen, J.; Eggermont, N.; van Pelt, M.; Hen, H.; de Man, J.; Schellevis, F.; Peters, D.H.; Bigdeli, M. Patient-centred innovation to ensure access to diabetes care in Cambodia: The case of MoPoTsyo. J. Pharm. Policy Pract. 2016, 9, 1.
- Sokol, R.; Fisher, E. Peer support for the hardly reached: A systematic review. Am. J. Public Health 2016, 106, e1–e8.
- Fisher, E.B.; Ballesteros, J.; Bhushan, N.; Coufal, M.M.; Kowitt, S.D.; McDonough, A.M.; Parada, H.; Robinette, J.B.; Sokol, R.L.; Tang, P.Y.; et al. Key features of peer support in chronic disease prevention and management. Health Aff. 2015, 34, 1523–1530.
- Ramchand, R.; Ahluwalia, S.C.; Xenakis, L.; Apaydin, E.; Raaen, L.; Grimm, G. A systematic review of peer-supported interventions for health promotion and disease prevention. Prev. Med. 2017, 101, 156–170.
- Rizzo, M.; Berneis, K. Lipid triad or atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype: A role in cardiovascular prevention? J. Atheroscler. Thromb. 2005, 12, 237–239.
- Rizzo, M.; Berneis, K. Who needs to care about small, dense low-density lipoproteins? Int. J. Clin. Pract. 2007, 61, 1949–1956.
- Rizzo, M.; Pernice, V.; Frasheri, A.; Di Lorenzo, G.; Rini, G.B.; Spinas, G.A.; Berneis, K. Small, dense low-density lipoproteins (LDL) are predictors of cardio- and cerebro-vascular events in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Clin. Endocrinol. 2009, 70, 870–875.
- Rizzo, M.; Nikolic, D.; Patti, A.M.; Mannina, C.; Montalto, G.; McAdams, B.S.; Rizvi, A.A.; Cosentino, F. GLP-1 receptor agonists and reduction of cardiometabolic risk: Potential underlying mechanisms. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Mol. Basis Dis. 2018, 1864, 2814–2821.