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Bonded Marine Hoses for Floating Offshore Structures (FOS)
By characterisation, a marine hose is a unique type of flexible riser used in fluid transfer. By definition, a marine hose is simply a fluid transfer conduit utilised in transferring, discharging, loading, and transporting fluids from an oil well to the platform of a floating platform or a floating structure. The fluid transfer system for bonded marine hoses is dependent on floating offshore structures (FOS). Single Point Mooring (SPM) systems are component aspects of the techno-economic design and FOS operation.
2. Sustainable Fluid Transfer at SPM Mooring Terminals
2.1. Sustainable Fluid Transfer Operation
The PLEM and the buoy are connected by flexible subsea hoses known as risers. The arrangement can take the form of a Chinese lantern, Lazy-S, Lazy Wave, or Steep-S depending on depth, sea state, buoy motions, and other factors.
The buoy is connected to the tanker by floating hose strings.
Marine breakaway coupling that enables for emergency pipeline disconnection to prevent hose/hawser breakage and associated oil spills.
The tanker can rotate with relation to the mooring buoy thanks to the product swivel, valves, and piping that connect the geostatic and rotating components of the buoy.
2.2. Preparation & Arrangement of SPM Moorings
For picking up rope, a messenger line has been requested.
It must be fitted in an empty drum at the bow, large enough to hold a 120 m [or longer, depending on terminal advice] Pick Up Rope.
The messenger must be 100 metres long (or as instructed by the terminal).
The messenger should be 1”−3” wide, and at its end have one small shackle.
The afterdeck specification to be used on the Tug Boat should be 02 × 200 Mt.
3. Model Application of Bonded Marine Hoses
Bonded marine hoses are for loading and offloading purposes. These hoses are used in a wide range of mooring systems. The circumstances under which they must operate also differ based on environmental conditions, size of the oil well, the water depth, the capacity of the terminal, the amount of hoses, the sizes of the hoses, the number of mooring chains (or mooring lines), the number of shuttle vessels, the schedule of daily operation, and the designed (un)loading system. Even within a single system, there are differences in the specifications of the many segments that make it up.
3.1. Configurations for Submarine Hoses
3.1.1. CALM Buoy Hose Configurations
3.1.2. Chinese-Lantern Hose Configurations
3.1.3. Lazy-S Hose Configurations
3.1.4. Steep-S Hose Configurations
3.2. Configurations for Floating Hoses
3.2.1. SALM Buoy Hose Configurations
3.2.2. Floating Tandem Mooring Hose Configurations
|No.||Location||Description||Hose Type||Optional Type||Characteristics||Application|
|1||FPSO Connection||Off take connection||Floating||Reel||Reinforced hose end, at one end||Connected to shuttle tanker bow loading point or FPSO|
|2||Reduced Buoyancy||Reducer||Floating||Reel||Reduced buoyancy or Neutral||Often next to 2–3 hose sections on the string|
|3||Mainline||Mainline||Floating||Reel||Fairly flexible||Main part of the floating hose string|
|4||Operational Taper||Taper||Floating||Reel||Integral reducing bore||Connection of smaller bore tail hose and larger bore mainline|
|5||Tail||Tail Hose||Floating||Reel||Electrically discontinuous||Smaller bore diameter compared to mainline. Links tanker end to handle rail hose|
|6||Rail||Rail Hose||Floating Rail||Reel||Higher flexibility during lug lifting||Over rail hose for connecting to the manifolds of conventional midships|
3.2.3. Stored Hose (or Hose Reel) Tandem Mooring
3.2.4. Deepwater Export Lines
|CALM||Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring|
|FPSO||Floating Production Storage and Offloading|
|FSO||Floating Storage and Offloading|
|FSRU||Floating Storage and Regasification Unit|
|FSU||Floating Storage Unit|
|HEV||Hose End Valves|
|MBC||Marine Breakaway Coupling|
|MBM||Multi Buoy Mooring (or Multiple Buoy Mooring)|
|OCIMF||Oil Companies International Marine Forum|
|PLEM||Pipeline End Manifold|
|SALM||Single Anchor Leg Mooring|
|SBM||Single Buoy Mooring|
|SDG||Sustainable Development Goals|
|SPAR||Single Point Anchor Reservoir|
|SPM||Single Point Mooring|
|TLP||Tension Leg Platform|
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/jmse9111236
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