Bifidobacteria and Mucosal-Associated Invariant T (MAIT) cells
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The pathogenesis of colorectal cancer involves a multi-step and multi-factorial process. Disruption of the gut microbiota has been associated with colorectal cancer. The genus Bifidobacterium is considered an important component of the commensal microbiota and plays important roles in several homeostatic functions: immunologic, neurohormonal, and metabolic. Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are important for immune defense against infectious pathogens and regulate the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases and colorectal cancer. Significant progress has been made in recent years in recognizing the importance of the interaction between the gut microbiota and MAIT cells in CRC.
Bifidobacterium species have immune modulatory, metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects.Epithelial inflammation constitutes an important initiating factor in the development of colitis-associated CRC. Inflammation may arise after mucosal invasion by intestinal bacteria. MAIT Th17 cells preferentially infiltrate into the tumor in CRC patients and may contribute to prognosis of CRC. Bifidobacterium strains have protective and preventive effects on colonic microbiota composition and may have an impact on the inflammatory regulation on CRC. Bifidobacterium animalis strains promote a Th1 response, in both in vitro and in vivo experiments .Bifidobacterium animalis strain exhibits low/non-stimulator status for MAIT cells and it can be proposed that Bifidobacterium animalis strain may be effective in preventing CRC through non stimulatory effect on Th17(IL17) cells and a promoting effect on Th1 cells.Bifidobacterium strains may be effective in preventing CRC through their inhibitory effects on MAIT cells. Engagement between Bifidobacterium and MAIT cells could exert a beneficial effect on colorectal cancer prevention and treatment.
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