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Stationary Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems
The energy storage system is one of the key elements in a hybrid renewable energy system. Systems with kinetic storage, electrochemical storage batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen energy storage are considered.
2. Renewable Energy Systems for Railway Transport Electrification
Power generation systems based on photovoltaic converters;
Generation systems based on wind power plants;
Hybrid generation systems.
3. Stationary Energy Storage Systems for Electrified Railways
4. Hydrogen Technologies
The analysis of the publications allowed defining the main groups of technical solutions for the integration of renewable energy systems into the railway infrastructure. Their advantages and disadvantages were described. Examples of the implementation of these systems in various countries were given. The analysis identified the main criteria for the feasibility of using various options for renewable energy systems at the design stage.
Various types of energy storage systems that play a key role in integrating renewable energy with rail electrification systems were also considered. A comparative analysis of the technical and economic characteristics of various types of storage devices has been carried out.
In this review, special attention was paid to works describing the configuration of hybrid energy storage systems based on hydrogen storage, electrochemical storage batteries, and supercapacitors. Optimally selected characteristics of the storage system make it possible to compensate for the shortcomings of each individual element, providing both high-speed performance and high peak power values in the event of sudden changes in the mode, and a large capacity of stored energy, which allows using renewable energy systems with maximum efficiency.
The analysis of publications showed that at present, the greatest interest from researchers is shown to hybrid microgrid systems, which include various generation systems based on renewable energy sources, as well as energy storage systems of various types. This option is the most effective from the standpoint of reliability and quality of power supply since it reduces the likelihood of imbalances between the generation and consumption of electrical energy caused by the variable operating mode and significant fluctuations in the output power of renewable energy systems.
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/en14185946
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