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4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a synthetic resorcinolic lipid that has been used as an anti-parasitic and antiseptic agent since the 1920s.
2. 4HR Administration Inhibits Class I HDAC Activity and Increases the Acetylation Level of Cellular Proteins
3. 4HR Administration Increases Dental Hard Tissue Formation and Incisor Eruption Rate in Rats
Administration of 4HR increased the expression level of TGF-β1, OSX, DSPP, PTHrP-R, BMP-2/4, and Runx2, in dose- and time-dependent manner (Figure 2,3).
Figure 2. Results of western blotting assay for cell culture. Application of 4HR increased the expression level of TGF-β1, OSX, DSPP, PTHrP-R, BMP-2/4, and Runx2 in a time- and dose-dependent manner.
Figure 3. Results of tooth eruption study. Representative findings after 4HR administration. Administration of 4HR increased the rate of incisor eruption.
Administration of 4HR increased the rate of incisor eruption in both sexes of rats (Fig. 3). When the total amount of eruption was compared between males and females, there was no significant difference between the sexes in the same group (P > 0.05). The total amount of eruption in males at 15 days after 4HR administration was 21.75 ± 0.83 mm, 23.49 ± 0.94 mm, and 24.76 ± 0.91 mm in control, Group A, and Group B, respectively. Difference across the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.001). In post-hoc test, the difference between control and experimental groups was statistically significant (P = 0.028 and 0.001 for Groups A and B, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (P > 0.05).
The total amount of eruption in females after 15 days of 4HR administration was 22.00 ± 1.66 mm, 23.55 ± 1.93 mm, and 26.22 ± 1.85 mm in control, Group A, and Group B, respectively. Difference across the groups was statistically significant (P = 0.010). In post-hoc test, the difference between control and Group B was statistically significant (P = 0.010). However, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A and B (P > 0.05).
4. 4HR Administration Decreased Serum Testosterone Level and Mandibular Size in Male Rats
In this study, there was no significant difference in body weight between the control female (CF) and experimental female (EF) groups (p > 0.05). However, there was significant difference in body weight between the control male (CM) and experimental male (EM) groups (p = 0.001). The body weight of CM at 16 weeks was 492.5 ± 10.5 g, and that of EM was 435.2 ± 7.5 g (Figure 4a). The size of the facial skeleton was slight smaller in the EM group compared to that in CM group (Figure 4b). When mandible size was compared, that of the EM group was slightly smaller than that of the CM group (Figure 4c).
Figure 4. Animal study results. The administration of 4HR decreased body-weight and mandibular size in the EM group, but increased mandibular size in the EF group. (A) Body-weight changes in each group. Compared to the control male (CM) group, the experimental male (EM) group showed smaller body weight. However, it was almost the same between the control female (CF) and experimental female (EF) groups at all observation points. (B) Three-dimensional reconstructed images of mCT. EM group had a smaller facial skeleton compared to that of the CM group. The CF group, on the other hand, had a smaller facial skeleton than that of the EF group. (C) When mandibular size was compared among groups, mandibles from the CM group were larger than those from the EM group. However, females showed the opposite trend.
The entry is from 10.3390/ijms22168935
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