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Inclusive Green Growth
Inclusive Green Growth is a sustainable development mode that pursues the coordination of economic growth, ecological environment and social equity. It coordinates the contradictions and conflicts between man and nature and between man and man by changing and optimizing the mode of production. It is an important way and specific form to realize the coordinated development of the three systems of economy, society and nature. Inclusive Green Growth pursues fairness and efficiency, the internal consistency between development and environment, and is committed to achieving high-quality synchronous development of economy, society and ecology. Compared with Green Growth and Inclusive Growth, Inclusive Green Growth has richer theoretical connotation and practical value: the change of wealth system and development concept is its logical starting point; The coordinated reform of the socio-economic structure system based on the mode of production is the guarantee of its system; The overall coordination of growth and development is its prominent feature; Economic growth, inclusiveness and sharing, effective utilization and protection of ecological resources are its internal requirements; The equal participation and sharing of the whole people in the development process and development achievements is its value orientation. The comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of the three systems of economy, society and nature is its goal and requirement.
2. The Efficiency of China’s Fiscal Expenditure Structure under the Goal of Inclusive Green Growth
- (1) Different from the previous research results of Inclusive Green Growth from the perspective of counties (Li et al., 2021)  and counties (Chen et al., 2020)  or a few indicators (Sun et al., 2020) , this paper constructs an evaluation index system covering multiple dimensions from the perspective of regions, and it expands the application of Inclusive Green Growth at the provincial level. In particular, for China’s fiscal policy system, the measurement results of Inclusive Green Growth at the provincial level can well match the regional fiscal expenditure. The fiscal expenditure efficiency is calculated, which provides a basis for the study of regional heterogeneity. The growth rate of the Inclusive Green Growth index shows a downward trend year by year under the background of the new normal economy. After the implementation of the supply-side structural reform in 2016, the downward trend of the growth rate has eased. The recovery of the overall index growth rate benefits from the increase in the growth rate of the inclusive level, while the growth rate of the green level has had little change in recent years. Therefore, at a time when the international trade is not optimistic, the domestic economy has great downward resistance, and the technological revolution has not yet arrived, the government should focus on technological breakthrough, social equity, and environmental protection, continue to deepen the supply-side structural reform, and do a good job in the internal adjustment of the country, so as to lay the foundation for the next economic boom.
- (2) The efficiency of fiscal expenditure structure with the goal of Inclusive Green Growth has a large space–time difference in the study period, and the difference has gradually expanded in recent years. The result is different from that of the traditional fiscal expenditure structure with GDP as output (Li, 2010) . It is also different from the fiscal expenditure structure efficiency of green growth considering environmental factors (Qi and Zhao, 2020)  and inclusive growth considering social equity (Liu, 2020)  in recent years. The fundamental reason is that this paper studies inclusive green growth as a whole system. Without considering social equity and green environment, the efficiency of the fiscal expenditure structure measured only by GDP almost completely tends to increase the proportion of economic construction expenditure. China’s eastern, central, and western regions should adopt this fiscal policy under the traditional thinking. However, the infrastructure construction in some areas of China is relatively perfect, and the problems of income distribution and environmental protection are becoming more and more prominent. The efficiency evaluation results of fiscal expenditure structure with Inclusive Green Growth as the new development goal show regional heterogeneity, and the tendency of fiscal expenditure structure in different regions should be different. For the eastern region, the average change rate of TFP of the fiscal expenditure structure under the Inclusive Green Growth goal is lower than that of other regions, and the fiscal expenditure structure should be inclined to social expenditure and green expenditure. In order to maintain the frontier of efficiency, the financial expenditure structure should focus on economic expenditure. There are great differences in the total factor productivity level of the central region’s fiscal expenditure structure. Benchmarking cities should be set up to promote the demonstration effect.
The entry is from 10.3390/su13179725
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