1. Please check and comment entries here.
Table of Contents

    Topic review

    Metal Matrix Composite

    View times: 8
    Submitted by: JOHNY JAMES

    Definition

    Composites are generally categorized into three main categories based on the matrix substance. They are called metal matrix composite (MMC), polymer matrix composite (PMC), and ceramic matrix composite (CMC), respectively. MMC gives more elevated ductile properties than CMCs and better environmental stability than PMCs. Additionally, MMCs offer good thermal conductivity (from 220 to 580 W·m−1·K−1), wear resistance (0.01025), wear rate (g·m−1), erosion, and shear strength.

    1. Matrix Materials in MMCs

    Since the day work on metal matrix composites commenced, aluminum and its alloys played a vital role as matrix materials due to the increase in demand for high-strength, lightweight components. Similarly, magnesium and titanium alloys are also employed as metal matrix material, but both have their demerits because magnesium quickly reacts with the atmosphere, so processing is complicated; as for titanium, it is highly reactive and forms inter-metallics with many reinforcement materials [1][2].

    2. Applications of MMCs

    Based on the statistics, most aircraft components have been replaced by composites, and a considerable amount are MMCs. Additionally, many automotive engine manufacturers already replaced forged steel with MMCs. Piston, piston ring, connecting rod, brake rotor, cylinder liner bearings, bushings, etc., are some of the components made by MMCs due to their wear resistance, high strength, specific stiffness, and fatigue strength [3][4].

    3. Production of MMCs

    Various processing techniques are employed in the fabrication of MMCs. They are powder metallurgy, diffusion bonding, spray co-deposition, and casting routes. The casting route is one of the most common and economical from the above fabrication techniques even though it has limitations like porosity and agglomeration defects. Stir casting is commonly acknowledged as a proven technique, presently adopted commercially as well. In addition, stir casting permits a conventional metal processing technique to be integrated or replaced; this leads to cost reduction [5]. Furthermore, this liquid casting method is a low cost compared to the other entire composite fabrication method [6] and permits huge dimensional components.
    Skibo, M reported that the price of producing composites using a casting route is almost 1/3 to 1/2 of other existing routes, but for colossal size production, it may even fall to 1/10 of the cost by other methods. Even though it has few limitations, they can be overcome by using stir casing integrated with a squeeze casing unit [7][8].

    4. Various Metal Matrix and Reinforcement Phases of Advanced Composites Using Different Techniques

    H. Abdizadeh processed composite using A356 aluminum alloy and ZrO2 by stir casting method. The vol.% of reinforcement varies from 5 to 15 percent, and the temperatures were 750, 850, and 950 °C, respectively. It was reported that aluminum alloy reinforced with ZrO2 particles enhanced UTS and hardness compared to A356 aluminum alloy, and its maximum values were 232 MPa and 70 BHN, respectively. For 15 vol.% of ZrO2 composition, the highest UTS, and hardness values were obtained [9].
    Baghchesara, M. A produced composite using A356 aluminum alloy and ZrO2 by stir casting method. Various samples of 5, 10, and 15 volume percent of ZrO2 in different casting temperatures of 750, 850, and 950 °C were prepared. The maximum tensile strength was recorded in the sample having 15 vol.% ZrO2 prepared at 750 °C, which shows an enhancement of 60% compared to the aluminium-356 parent alloy. Additionally, it has been concluded that the composite fracture was severely brittle by increasing ZrO2 particle quantity and casting temperature [10].
    M. Hajizamani fabricated composite using A356 and ZrO2 by stir casting method. In this work, nanoparticles of ZrO2 and Al2O3 were constituted to produce composites with a composition of 0.5–2 wt.% of the reinforcement. This work records that by raising the reinforcement, density reduced while yield, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), and compressive strength improved. The ductility of the composite specimens was low due to high porosity and the formation of voids. Additionally, hardness improved at one weight percent of Al2O3 and 10 weight percent of ZrO2. However, for the hardness of the specimen at 1.5–2 weight percent of Al2O3 and 10 weight percent ZrO2 again the hardness value came down [11].
    G.Karthikeyan selected aluminum LM25 as the parent material, reinforced with 0–15% of zirconium oxide prepared by stir casting route. Wear and tensile specimens were made per ASTM G99 and ASTM B-557-M-94 standard. A surface roughness test was done on wear specimens. The test shows that a rise in ZrO2 particles percentage promotes surface roughness value [12].
    Using the stir casting method, S. Prajval prepared a metal matrix composite by combining aluminum A356 and titanium dioxide (TiO2) with various mica percentages (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%). It has been concluded that the UTS value is highly influenced by the percentage of mica and TiO2 present in the composite. Additionally, the UTS value is noteworthily influenced by the process of heat treatment and aging method. The hardness of the specimens increases when the reinforcement in the composite specimen increases [13].
    T. Rajmohan studied the property of hybrid A356 metal matrix composite reinforced with mica and SiC particles. Micrographs were investigated with the help of SEM. EDX was used to study the material composition. The results showed that better hardness was obtained for the composition of 10 wt.% of SiC and 3 wt.% of mica. The rise in weight percent of mica enhances the wear-resistant property of the composite [14].
    R. Raj processed 6061Al-B4C, the composite containing different wt.% of B4C using advanced stir casting method with bottom pouring set-up. The dispersion of particles of B4C in the aluminum matrix, interfacial characteristics, and microstructural features was qualitatively studied using an optical microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Microstructural characterization revealed that the distribution of B4C in the metal matrix phase was comparatively uniform, and at some locations, small-scale agglomeration and clustering of particles were observed. Particle size distribution has been studied for the quantitative description of agglomeration of B4C particles, revealing small-scale agglomeration of particles. Homogeneity and randomness of B4C particulates across the matrix phase have been calculated by the quadrant method. The results show a random spatial distribution of particles with small-scale clustering [15].
    B. P Beyrami fabricated composite using A356 and ZrO2 nanoparticles. Samples of composites were made at different percentages of ZrO2 (1.5, 2.5, and 5 vol.%). The casting temperatures were selected as 800–950 °C. Micrographs of composite samples were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties such as compressive yield strength, toughness, and hardness were calculated. The experimental results depict that mechanical properties like compressive yield strength and hardness are noticeably picked up by adding ZrO2 particles. The highest values were for samples containing 2.5 vol.% of particles fabricated at 850 °C [16].
    Two sets of cast composite specimens were prepared by stir casting fixing the 10% of fly ash and varying (5% and 10%) zirconia by weight fraction. S. Malhotra et al. reported that the optimum casting conditions of the composite fabrication were attained with 10 wt.% ZrO2 and 10 wt.% fly ash. There is a considerable increase in tensile, elongation, and hardness value [17]. M. Ramachandra synthesized composite using Al 6061 and ZrO2 to study corrosion behavior by the stir casting process. This work reports that the corrosion rate of the parent material is higher than the cast composite, and the best property is achieved in 7.5 wt.% ZrO2 specimen [18].
    D. M. Patoliya prepared composite using Al 6061 and ZrO2 by the stir casting process. Four specimens were prepared to vary wt.% from 0 to 7.5, keeping all other parameters the same. It is also reported that tensile strength, hardness, and impact strength have been promoted parallel to the rise in weight fraction of zirconium oxide particles in the Al 6061 matrix, but elongation decreased with increase in wt percent of ZrO2 in the Al 6061 matrix [19].
    P. R Thyla fabricated composite using Al 6061, Gr, SiC, and ZrO2 by the stir casting process. Five different samples were prepared to study the corrosion behavior. It has been reported that the corrosion rate decreased due to the presence of ceramic particles in the matrix material. Specifically, 9% wt percent sample records a very minimum corrosion rate [20].
    The above works of various researchers show the development of composites using aluminum alloy and various reinforcements with different particle sizes and compositions. It proves the successful development of composite. One of the main objectives of composite is to achieve high strength. Table 1 gives a detailed report of the metal matrix, reinforcement, and the tensile strength achieved.
    Table 1. Various tensile strength values of developed composites.
    S.L. No Author Metal Matrix % and Reinforcement Tensile Strength in MPa Reference
    1 Kalaiselvan (2011) AA6061 12 wt.% B4C 215 [21]
    2 Amirkhanlou and Niroumand (2011) A356 5 vol.% SiC 89 [22]
    3 Alizadeh (2011) Al 2 wt.% B4C 197 [23]
    4 Kumar (2012) AA6061 20 wt.% AlN 241 [24]
    5 Mazaheri (2013) Pure Al 10 vol.% B4C 132 [25]
    6 Selvam (2013) AA6061 10 wt.% SiC and 7.5 wt.% flyash 213 [26]
    7 Kumar (2013) A359 8 wt.% Al2O3 148 [27]
    8 James, S. J. (2014) Al 6061 SiC—10 wt.% 150.1 [28]
    9 James, S. J. (2014) Al 6061 TiB2—10 wt.% 195 [29]
    10 Bharath (2014) AA6061 12 wt.% Al2O3 193 [30]
    11 Yang (2015) A356 6 vol.% Al3Ti 163 [31]
    12 Akbari (2015) A356 3 vol.%TiB2 308 [32]
    13 Niranjan (2015) A356 6 wt.% TiB2 261 [33]
    14 James, S (2017) Al 6061 SiC—5 wt.%, Al2O3—3 wt.%, TiB2—2 wt.% 91 [34]
    15 JohnyJames, S (2017) Al 6061 ZrSiO4—10 wt.% 94 [35]
    16 Ansar Kareem (2021) AA 6061 Iron ore of 2% 240.5 [36]
    17 Vipin Kumar Sharma (2019) AA 6061 SiC + Al2O3 119 [37]
    18 S Narendranath (2020) AA6061 SiC/fly ash—2.5% 145 [38]
    19 S. Roseline (2018) Al6061 5% ZrO2 118 [39]
    20 Sharma (2021) Al–Mg–Si–T6 SiC (5%) + muscovite (2%) 96.08 [40]
    21 Konopatsky (2021) AlSi10 Mg BN microflake 230 [41]
    22 Sha, Jian-jun (2021) Al Alloy Nickel-coated carbon fiber 70 [42]
    23 Rao (2021) Al7075 0.5 wt.% SiC 276 [43]
    24 Kumar (2021) Al–SiC SiC 64.55 [44]
    25 Velavan (2021) Al 6% B4C + Mica 72 [45]
    26 Ezatpour (2014) Al6061 Al2O3–1.5 wt.% 200 [46]
    27 Ramnath (2014) Al Alloy Al2O3–3% B4C–2% 54.6 [47]
    28 Amouri, K (2016) A356 0.5 wt.% Nano-SiC 295 [48]
    29 El-Sabbagh (2013) 6061/F500 SiC–10% 115.66 [49]
    30 Yu, L. I., et al. (2016) AA1100 31%–B4C 160 [50]
    31 Kandpal (2017) AA 6061 Al2O3-5% 150 [51]
    32 Sumankant (2017) A356 TiB2–6% 261.84 [52]
    33 Alaneme (2013) AA 6063 Al2O3p–6% 100 [53]
    34 Rino (2013) AA 6064 8%–ZrSiO4 + 2%–Al2O3 132.98 [54]
    35 Kumar, G. V (2010) Al6061 SiC 100 [55]
    36 Singh, V (2004) AA 6061 5 wt.% SiCp 52.8 [56]
    37 Mazaheri, Y (2013) Al TiC–B4C 123 [25]
    From Figure 1, the highest strength reported is by M. K Akbari et al. using metal matrix A356 reinforced with 3 vol.% TiB2 that results in 308 MPa and K. Amouri using metal matrix A356 reinforced 0.5 wt.% Nano-SiC that results in 295 MPa. The lowest strength reported is by V. Singh using aluminum alloy reinforced with 5% (weight) SiCp that results in 52.8 MPa, and B.V Ramnath using aluminum alloy reinforced with Al2O3—3% B4C—2% and achieved a tensile value of 54.6 MPa. The above experimental work listed in Table 1 shows a vast deviation in tensile strength. Various factors can cause variation in tensile strength. This work analyzes the most influential factors, i.e., wettability, uniform distribution, cluster formation, etc., in detail [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56].
    Figure 1. Graph of several reinforcements versus tensile strength [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56].

    The entry is from 10.3390/nano11092230

    References

    1. Sharma, A.K.; Bhandari, R.; Aherwar, A.; Rimašauskienė, R.; Pinca-Bretotean, C. A study of advancement in application opportunities of aluminum metal matrix composites. Mater. Today Proc. 2020, 26, 2419–2424.
    2. Swamy, P.K.; Mylaraiah, S.; GowdruChandrashekarappa, M.P.; Lakshmikanthan, A.; Pimenov, D.Y.; Giasin, K.; Krishna, M. Corrosion Behaviour of High-Strength Al 7005 Alloy and Its Composites Reinforced with Industrial Waste-Based Fly Ash and Glass Fibre: Comparison of Stir Cast and Extrusion Conditions. Materials 2021, 14, 3929.
    3. Vasiliev, V.V.; Morozov, E.V. Advanced Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structural Elements; Newnes: London, UK, 2013.
    4. MMCs. Piston, piston ring, connecting rod, brake rotor, cylinder liner bearings, bushings, etc. In Automotive Applications for MMC’s Based on Short-Staple Alumina Fibres; Dinwoodie, J., Ed.; SAE Transactions: New York, NY, USA, 1987; pp. 269–279.
    5. Hashim, J.; Looney, L.; Hashmi, M.S.J. Metal matrix composites: Production by the stir casting method. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 1999, 92, 1–7.
    6. Surappa, M.K. Microstructure evolution during solidification of DRMMCs (discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites): State of the art. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 1997, 63, 325–333.
    7. Skibo, M.; Morris, P.L.; Lloyd, D.J. Structure and properties of liquid metal processed SiC reinforced aluminium. In Proceedings of the World Materials Congress, Chicago, IL, USA, 24–30 September 1988; pp. 257–262.
    8. Iqbal, A.A.; Nuruzzaman, D.M. Effect of the reinforcement on the mechanical properties of aluminium matrix composite: A review. Int. J. Appl. Eng. Res. 2016, 11, 10408–10413.
    9. Abdizadeh, H.; Baghchesara, M.A. Investigation into the mechanical properties and fracture behavior of A356 aluminum alloy-based ZrO2-particle-reinforced metal-matrix composites. Mech. Compos. Mater. 2013, 49, 571–576.
    10. Baghchesara, M.A.; Abdizadeh, H.; Baharvandi, H.R. Fractography of stir-casted Al-ZrO2 composites. Iran. J. Sci. Technol. Trans. B Eng. 2009, 33, 453–462.
    11. Hajizamani, M.; Baharvandi, H. Fabrication and studying the mechanical properties of A356 alloy reinforced with Al2O3-10% Vol. ZrO2 nanoparticles through stir casting. Adv. Mater. Phys. Chem. 2011, 1, 26–30.
    12. Karthikeyan, G.; Jinu, G.R. Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Stir Cast LM25/ZrO2 Metal Matrix Composites. Trans. FAMENA 2016, 39, 89–98.
    13. Prajval, S.; Prasad, P.R. Synthesis and evaluation of mechanical properties of aluminium A356 alloy reinforced with mica and titanium dioxide hybrid composite at different aging conditions. Int. J. Adv. Res. Eng. Appl. Sci. 2016, 5, 13–21.
    14. Rajmohan, T.; Palanikumar, K.; Ranganathan, S. Evaluation of mechanical and wear properties of hybrid aluminium matrix composites. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 2013, 23, 2509–2517.
    15. Raj, R.; Thakur, D.G. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of microstructure in Al-B4C metal matrix composite processed by modified stir casting technique. Arch. Civ. Mech. Eng. 2016, 16, 949–960.
    16. Beyrami, B.P.; Abdizadeh, H.; Baharvandi, H.R.; Bonab, M.M. The Effect of Composition and Stir-Casting Parameters on the Mechanical Properties of Al/ZrO2p Nanocomposites. In Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Composite Materials, Stockholm, Sweden, 2–5 June 2008.
    17. Malhotra, S.; Narayan, R.; Gupta, R.D. Synthesis and characterization of Aluminium 6061 alloy—Fly ash & zirconia metal matrix composite. Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol. 2013, 3, 1716–1719.
    18. Ramachandra, M.; Maruthi, G.D.; Rashmi, R. Evaluation of Corrosion Property of Aluminium-Zirconium Dioxide (AlZrO2) Nanocomposites. Evaluation 2016, 1, 56412.
    19. Patoliya, D.M.; Sharma, S.; Student, P.G. Preparation and Characterization of Zirconium Dioxide Reinforced Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites. Eng. Technol. 2015, 4, 3315–3321.
    20. Thyla, P.R.; Tiruvenkadam, N.; Kumar, M.S. Investigation of Corrosion Behavior of Light Weight NanoHybrid Al 6061-ZrO2–SiC-Gr Composites. Int. J. Chem. Technol. Res. 2015, 8, 312–316.
    21. Kalaiselvan, K.; Murugan, N.; Parameswaran, S. Production and characterization of AA6061–B 4 C stir cast composite. Mater. Des. 2011, 32, 4004–4009.
    22. Amirkhanlou, S.; Jamaati, R.; Niroumand, B.; Toroghinejad, M.R. Manufacturing of high-performance Al356/SiCp composite by CAR process. Mater. Manuf. Process. 2011, 26, 902–907.
    23. Alizadeh, A.; Taheri-Nassaj, E.; Hajizamani, M. The hot extrusion process affects the mechanical behavior of stir cast Al-based composites reinforced with mechanically milled B4C nanoparticles. J. Mater. Sci. Technol. 2011, 27, 1113–1119.
    24. Kumar, B.A.; Murugan, N. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of stir cast AA6061-T6–AlN p composite. Mater. Des. 2012, 40, 52–58.
    25. Mazaheri, Y.; Meratian, M.; Emadi, R.; Najarian, A.R. Comparison of microstructural and mechanical properties of Al–TiC, Al–B4C, and Al–TiC–B4C composites prepared by casting techniques. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 2013, 560, 278–287.
    26. Selvam, J.D.R.; Smart, D.R.; Dinaharan, I. Synthesis and characterization of Al6061-Fly Ashp-SiCp composites by stir casting and compo casting methods. Energy Procedia 2013, 34, 637–646.
    27. Kumar, A.; Lal, S.; Kumar, S. Fabrication and characterization of A359/Al2O3 metal matrix composite using electromagnetic stir casting method. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 2013, 2, 250–254.
    28. James, S.J.; Venkatesan, K.; Kuppan, P.; Ramanujam, R. Hybrid aluminium metal matrix composite reinforced with SiC and TiB2. Procedia Eng. 2014, 97, 1018–1026.
    29. James, S.J.; Venkatesan, K.; Kuppan, P.; Ramanujam, R. Comparative study of composites reinforced with SiC and TiB2. Procedia Eng. 2014, 97, 1012–1017.
    30. Bharath, V.; Nagaral, M.; Auradi, V.; Kori, S.A. Preparation of 6061Al-Al2O3 MMC’s by Stir Casting and Evaluation of Mechanical and Wear Properties. Procedia Mater. Sci. 2014, 6, 1658–1667.
    31. Yang, R.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Chen, G.; Guo, Y.; Liu, M.; Zhang, J. Effect of multi-pass friction stir processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al 3 Ti/A356 composites. Mater. Charact. 2015, 106, 62–69.
    32. Akbari, M.K.; Baharvandi, H.R.; Shirvanimoghaddam, K. Tensile and fracture behavior of nano/micro TiB2 particle reinforced casting A356 aluminum alloy composites. Mater. Des. (1980–2015) 2015, 66, 150–161.
    33. Rajaravi, C.; Niranjan, K.; Lakshminarayanan, P.R. Comparative Analysis of Al/TiB2 Metal Matrix Composites in Different Mould Conditions. J. Adv. Microsc. Res. 2015, 10, 260–264.
    34. James, S.; Annamalai, A.; Kuppan, P.; Oyyaravelu, R. Fabrication of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced WithSiC/Al2O3/TiB2. Mech. Mater. Sci. Eng. MMSE J. Open Access 2017.
    35. Johnyjames, S.; Annamalai, A. Fabrication of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite and Testing of Its Property. Mech. Mater. Sci. Eng. MMSE J. Open Access 2017, 9, 306–311.
    36. Kareem, A.; Qudeiri, J.A.; Abdudeen, A.; Ahammed, T.; Ziout, A. A review on AA 6061 metal matrix composites produced by stir casting. Materials 2021, 14, 175.
    37. Sharma, V.K.; Kumar, V.; Joshi, R.S. Investigation of rare earth particulate on tribological and mechanical properties of Al-6061 alloy composites for aerospace application. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 2019, 8, 3504–3516.
    38. Narendranath, S.; Chakradhar, D. Studies on microstructure and mechanical characteristics of as-cast AA6061/SiC/fly ash hybrid AMCs produced by stir casting. Mater. Today Proc. 2020, 20, A1–A5.
    39. Roseline, S.; Paramasivam, V.; Anandhakrishnan, R.; Lakshminarayanan, P.R. Numerical evaluation of zirconium reinforced aluminium matrix composites for a sustainable environment. Ann. Oper. Res. 2019, 275, 653–667.
    40. Sharma, S.; Singh, J.; Gupta, M.K.; Mia, M.; Dwivedi, S.P.; Saxena, A.; Korkmaz, M.E. Investigation on mechanical, tribological, and microstructural properties of Al-Mg-Si–T6/SiC/muscovite-hybrid metal-matrix composites for high strength applications. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 2021, 12, 1564–1581.
    41. Konopatsky, A.S.; Kvashnin, D.G.; Corthay, S.; Boyarintsev, I.; Firestein, K.L.; Orekhov, A.; Shtansky, D.V. Microstructure evolution during AlSi10Mg molten alloy/B.N. micro flakes interactions in metal matrix composites obtained through 3D printing. J. Alloys Compd. 2021, 859, 157765.
    42. Sha, J.J.; LÜ, Z.Z.; Sha, R.Y.; Zu, Y.F.; Dai, J.X.; Xian, Y.Q.; Yan, C.L. Improved wettability and mechanical properties of metal-coated carbon-fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composites by squeeze melt infiltration technique. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 2021, 31, 317–330.
    43. Rao, T.B. Microstructural, mechanical, and wear properties characterization, and strengthening mechanisms of Al7075/SiCnp composites processed through ultrasonic cavitation assisted stir-casting. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 2021, 805, 140553.
    44. Kumar, M.S.; Begum, S.R.; Pruncu, C.I.; Asl, M.S. Role of homogeneous distribution of SiC reinforcement on the characteristics of stir cast Al–SiC composites. J. Alloys Compd. 2021, 869, 159250.
    45. Velavan, K.; Palanikumar, K.; Natarajan, E.; Lim, W.H. Implications on the influence of mica on the mechanical properties of cast hybrid (Al+ 10% B4C+ Mica) metal matrix composite. J. Mater. Res. Technol. 2021, 10, 99–109.
    46. Ezatpour, H.R.; Sajjadi, S.A.; Sabzevar, M.H.; Huang, Y. Investigation of microstructure and mechanical properties of Al6061-nanocomposite fabricated by stir casting. Mater. Des. 2014, 55, 921–928.
    47. Ramnath, B.V.; Elanchezhian, C.; Jaivignesh, M.; Rajesh, S.; Parswajinan, C.; Ghias, A.S.A. Evaluation of mechanical properties of aluminium alloy–alumina–boron carbide metal matrix composites. Mater. Des. 2014, 58, 332–338.
    48. Amouri, K.; Kazemi, S.; Momeni, A.; Kazazi, M. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-nano/micro SiC composites produced by stir casting technique. Mater. Sci. Eng. A 2016, 674, 569–578.
    49. El-Sabbagh, A.M.; Soliman, M.; Taha, M.A.; Palkowski, H. Effect of rolling and heat treatment on tensile behavior of wrought Al-SiCp composites prepared by stir-casting. J. Mater. Process. Technol. 2013, 213, 1669–1681.
    50. Yu, L.I.; Li, Q.L.; Dong, L.I.; Wei, L.I.U.; Shu, G.G. Fabrication and characterization of stir casting AA6061—31% B4C composite. Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 2016, 26, 2304–2312.
    51. Kandpal, B.C.; Singh, H. Fabrication and characterization of Al2O3/aluminium alloy 6061 composites fabricated by Stir casting. Mater. Today Proc. 2017, 4, 2783–2792.
    52. Sumankant, Y.; Jawalkar, C.S.; Verma, A.S.; Surie, N.M. Fabrication of aluminium metal matrix composites with particulate reinforcement: A review. Mater. Today 2017, 4, 2927–2936.
    53. Alaneme, K.K.; Bodunrin, M.O. Mechanical behavior of alumina reinforced AA 6063 metal matrix composites developed by two step-stir casting process. Acta Tech. Corviniensis-Bull. Eng. 2013, 6, 105.
    54. Rino, J.J.; Sivalingappa, D.; Koti, H.; Jebin, V.D. Properties of Al6063 MMC reinforced with zircon sand and alumina. IOSR J. Mech. Civ. Eng. 2013, 5, 72–77.
    55. Kumar, G.V.; Rao, C.S.P.; Selvaraj, N.; Bhagyashekar, M.S. Studies on Al6061-SiC and Al7075-Al2O3 metal matrix composites. J. Miner. Mater. Charact. Eng. 2010, 9, 43–55.
    56. Singh, V.; Prasad, R.C. Tensile and fracture behavior of 6061 al-sicp metal matrix composites. In Proceedings of the International Symposium of Research Students on Materials Science and Engineering, Madras, India, 20–22 December 2004; pp. 20–22.
    More