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DCMC as Wine Fining Agent
Dicarboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) is a cellulose derivative prepared via heterogeneous catalysed etherification. The polymer is negatively charged at wine pH due to the presence of malonic groups, which makes it suitable for removing positively charged compounds such as dyes. DCMC has similar structure and properties to carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), a compound commonly used for wine tartrate stabilization. CMC, having an acidic group with a pKa near 4.5, becomes mostly uncharged at a pH below 3.5, which is common in white wines, failing to promote ionic exchange and remove positively charged proteins. Nevertheless, the malonic carboxylate groups are more acidic than the one present in CMC and, consequently, more prone to be deprotonated at wine pH due to its first pKa (approx. 3).
One of the most prevalent causes of white wine haze occurs from the aggregation and denaturation of grape pathogenesis-related proteins, namely thaumatin-like (TLP) and chitinase proteins. The conditions associated with protein haze are the exposure of wines to high temperatures and long-term storage. To avoid this phenomenon, proteins are frequently removed through the negatively charged clay bentonite. Dicarboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) can be a substitute for this non-renewable material.
Wine clarity is a critical aspect in the commercialization of white wines. The formation of wine haze can be attributed to the aggregation and precipitation of heat-unstable wine proteins. Bentonite fining is the commonly used method in winemaking for protein removal, but it is responsible for loss of wine volume and quality. Dicarboxymethyl cellulose (DCMC) was developed as a potential alternative to bentonite. Water-insoluble DCMC was prepared via catalysed heterogeneous etherification using sodium chloromalonate and potassium iodide. White wine fining trials were benchmarked with different dosages of DCMC against bentonite. A high-performance liquid chromatography method was optimized for protein quantification. The samples underwent heat stability tests to evaluate wine turbidity before and after fining. Results show that DCMC successfully reduced the wine protein content and turbidity. DCMC produced heat-stable wines with dosages higher than 0.25 g/L. The innovative application of DCMC in the wine sector shows potential due to its ability to stabilize white wines while overcoming problems associated with bentonite, such as lees production and loss of wine, contributing to a more sustainable process.
2. Dicarboxymethyl cellulose
3. Wine Fining Trials
The entry is from 10.3390/beverages7030057
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