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Tempering Conditions on White Sorghum
Sorghum can be a good gluten-free replacement for those suffering from celiac disease, a disorder that induces gluten intolerance. Currently, the only cure for this autoimmune digestive disease is to consume a gluten-free diet throughout their life. Hence, the increasing demand for gluten-free bread from the groups of celiac disease and the challenges involved in making gluten-free bread, have led to increased research on gluten-free bread production. Much of the research on gluten-free bread production has focused on ingredients and product formulation, with less on the role of milling and flour properties. Flour particle size has been reported to play a significant role on gluten-free bread quality, which is dependent to a great extent on the milling technique performed. The other factors that affect the quality of bread are ash content of flour, which also depends on bran separation during milling, and water absorption capacity of flour during dough formation, which is affected by the damaged starch content in flour. These flour characteristics are affected by milling to a great extent due to the involvement of size reduction and separation of bran and germ from endosperm to procure flour.
The effects of room temperature water, hot water, and steam tempering methods were investigated on sorghum kernel physical properties, milling, flour, and bread-making properties. Overall tempering condition and tempering moisture content were found to have a significant effect on the physical properties. Milling properties were evaluated using a laboratory-scale roller milling flowsheet consisting of four break rolls and eight reduction rolls. Room temperature tempering (18% moisture for 24 h) led to better separation of bran and endosperm without negatively impacting flour quality characteristics i.e., particle size distribution, flour yield, protein, ash, damaged starch, and moisture content. Bread produced from the flour obtained from milling sorghum kernels tempered with room temperature water (18% m.c for 24 h) and hot water (16% m.c at 60 °C for 18 h) displayed better bread-making properties i.e., high firmness, resilience, volume index, higher number of cells, and thinner cell walls when compared to other tempering conditions. Room temperature water tempering treatment (18% m.c for 24 h) could be a better pretreatment process for milling white sorghum kernels without negatively impacting the flour and bread-making quality characteristics.
The entry is from 10.3390/foods10081947
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