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Lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) with high energy density are receiving increasing attention because of their environmental friendliness and are widely used in electric vehicles (EVs) worldwide. Battery degradation problems, such as capacity fading and internal resistance increasing, inevitably occur with time and use. These cause great trouble to users and manufacturers.
A clear understanding of how batteries age in EVs is urgently needed to: (i) optimize the battery materials, (ii) improve battery cell production, and (iii) guide the design of automotive battery systems.
At present, scientists from different fields have researched, from different perspectives, the aging of LiBs. Some scientists specifically discussed the impacts of environmental and operational factors on battery degradation , while others studied the battery aging mechanism through the post-mortem analysis of the internal components of the battery cell . However, a close connection between the battery operation and degradation in EV applications and the corresponding aging mechanism has not yet been established. Thus, a review is necessary in order to systematically and comprehensively describe the aging of LiBs in EVs.
Many reviews on battery aging have been published presenting the battery degradation and aging mechanisms. The main contents of these reviews are summarized in Table 1 . These reviews are mostly based on analyzing laboratory accelerated aging test results, which are mainly obtained using constant charging/discharging current and are significantly different from the battery operation in EVs. Besides, most of them lack the connection with the battery operation scenarios, and focus only on the degradation behavior of the battery itself; in reality, the influential factors on battery charging, discharging and standby are different, and aging should be described independently based on the operation status. Moreover, the battery chemistries reviewed in these works mainly involved stable LiCoO 2 and LiFePO 4, which are more stable and mature and are not considered to be state-of-the-art technology for EVs. Therefore, the aging mechanisms of widely EV-used Ni-rich battery chemistries ( LiNi 1− x M x O 2 , M = Co, Mn and Al. (NMC) and (NCA)) need further study.
|Han et al., 2019 ||√||√||LMO, LCO, LFP, NMC|
|Tian et al., 2020 ||√||LMO, LFP, NMC|
|Mocera et al., 2020 ||√||LFP|
|Woody et al., 2020 ||√||√||LCO, LMO, LFP, NCA, NMC|
|Vetter et al., 2005 ||√||LCO, LMO, NMC|
|Broussely et al., 2005 ||√||LCO, NMC|
|Barre et al., 2013 ||√||√||LCO|
|Birkl et al., 2017 ||√||LCO|
|Palacin et al., 2018 ||√||LMO, LCO, NMC, NCA|
|Xiong et al., 2020 ||√||√||LFP, NCA, NMC|
|Teichert et al., 2020 ||√||NMC|
|Alipour et al., 2020 ||√||√||LCO, LFP, NMC, NCA|
|Chen et al., 2021 ||√||√||LCO|
|Yang et al., 2021 ||√||√||NMC, NCA|
2. Aging on Lithium-Ion Batteries
2.1. Aging at the Cathode
2.2. Aging at the Electrolyte
2.3. Aging at the Anode
The entry is from 10.3390/en14175220
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