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Molecularly Imprinted (Micro)Solid Phase Extraction
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are versatile materials that mimic natural antigen–antibody mechanisms and allow molecules/analytes recognition [2,3]. MIPs have been used as selective sorbents for (micro)solid extraction (µ-SPE) procedures leading to molecularly imprinted (micro)solid extraction (MIMSPE), which allows advanced miniaturized sample pre-treatments for green procedures in Analytical Chemistry.
2. Dispersive (Micro)Solid Phase Extraction with MIPs
2.1. Dispersive (Micro)Solid Phase Extraction with Magnetic Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MMIPs)
2.1.1. Classification of MMIPs
Based on MMIP structure, four types of MMIPs can be established: core–shell MMIPs, magnetic nanotube-supported MIPs, magnetic nanosheet-supported MIPs, and magnetic hollow porous MIPs .
2.1.2. Magnetite Surface Functionalization for Core–Shell MMIPs
Magnetite surface functionalization can be performed mainly by using silica-based, diol-based, and vinyled compounds. However, there are other functionalization mechanisms as well as several combinations of surface modifier reagents for Fe3O4 nanoparticle surface functionalization.
Surface Functionalization with Hydroxyl (Diol) and Vinyl-Based Reagents
Surface Functionalization with Silica-Based Reagents
|Polyethylene glycol (PEG)|||
|Methacrylic acid (MAA)|||
|2,4-Difluoro-3-formyl-phenylboronic acid (DFFPBA) a,b|||
|4-Formylphenylboronic acid (FPBA) plus sodium cyanoborohydride (NaBH3CN)|||
|4-Vinylphenboronic acid (VPBA) c|||
|3-Aminophenylboronic acid (APBA) d|||
|Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)|||
|Oleic acid (OA)|||
|3-(Trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (TMSMA)|||
|3-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS or KH-570)|||
|Vinyl trimethoxy silane (VTMOS)|||
|Vinyl triethoxy silane (VTEO or VTES)|||
|Poly(ethylene glycol)bis(carboxymethyl) ether e|||
|Fe3O4@X, X= Cl or Br functionalization|
|4-Chloromethyl phenyl trichlorosilane (4-CPS) f|||
|3-Bromopropyl trimethoxy silane (BPTS)|||
2.1.3. Magnetite Surface Functionalization for Magnetic Nanotube-Supported and Magnetic Nanosheet-Supported MIPs
Surface functionalization of mixed magnetic composites involving the presence of CNTs  and MWCNTs  has been efficiently achieved by using diol-based reagents such as EG and PEG , although some authors have described the convenience of a previous MWCNT@Fe3O4 composite oxidation , reduction , or carboxylation  stage before functionalization/MIP synthesis.
Regarding magnetic nanosheet-supported MIPs, the GO@Fe3O4 surface is usually functionalized by grafting with acrylic acid as shown in Figure 4 , which ensure the presence of vinyl groups for further polymerization. Acrylic acid was also used for surface modification of chitosan based GO@Fe3O4 composites .
2.1.4. Magnetite Functionalization for Magnetic Porous MIPs
As previously commented, functionalization in HPMIPs based on mesoporous silica (1,2-diol groups over the HPMIPs) can be achieved by treating the composite with diluted perchloric acid (Figure 5) .
2.1.5. Other Mixed Composites for MMIPs
Various types of magnetic composites (Table 3) have been used as magnetic cores for MMIPs such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs).
2.2. Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction and Microsolid Phase Extraction with Non-Magnetic MIPs
dSPE/D-µ-SPE  can be performed by dispersing MMIP nanoparticles, and also non-magnetic MIP beads, by vortex and ultrasound stirring . The adsorbents can be obtained by precipitation , and bulk  polymerization has been used for dSPE/D-µ-SPE by shaking the sample/extract-MIP bead mixtures for times varying from 5.0 min  to 3.0 h . Absorption times can be reduced to 1 min when assisting the procedure by ultrasounds, enough time for isolating phenolic compounds in aqueous samples using 10 mg of MIP .
Ionic molecularly imprinted polymers (IIPs) have also been proposed for dSPE . MIP synthesis around non-magnetic nanoparticles, such as silica nanoparticles, has been also performed to obtain stable adsorbents. In addition, the excellent properties of MOFs have led to preparation of MOF-MIP composites based on UiO-66 MOF  and HKUST-1 MOF  by direct MIP polymerization on the MOF’s surface. Hollow non-magnetic composites based on silica  and carbon  have been also prepared for dSPE/D-µ-SPE. Other composites such as MWCNT-MIPs have also been demonstrated to be effective adsorbents for dSPE of dioctyl phthalate in beverage samples .
3. Drawbacks and Future Prospects
The entry is from 10.3390/separations8070099
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