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Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment and β-Cyclodextrin-aided Extraction
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a group of cyclic oligosaccharides consisting of subunits of α(1→4)-linked D-glucopyranose. Alpha-, β- and γ-CDs are the most common CDs, consisting of six, seven and eight glucose units, respectively, and they are obtained by enzymic starch degradation. Their shape has a truncated cone form, with hydroxyl functions directed towards the cavity’s outer surface.
Winemaking is a process that generates a large volume of solid waste biomass, which is currently under extensive investigation as a bioresource of precious polyphenolic compounds. These substances are retrieved from vinification side streams principally by deploying solid–liquid extraction methods. In this frame, the present investigation had as objective the development of an alternative, green extraction process for polyphenols, through integration of ultrasonication as a pretreatment stage, and subsequent extraction with aqueous β-cyclodextrin. Polyphenol recovery from red grape pomace (RGP) was shown to be significantly enhanced by ultrasonication pretreatment, and the use of β-cyclodextrin effectively boosted the aqueous extraction. Under optimized conditions, established by response surface methodology, the maximum yield in total polyphenols was 57.47 mg GAE g−1 dm, at 80 °C, requiring a barrier of 10.95 kJ mol−1. The extract produced was significantly enriched in catechin and quercetin, compared to the aqueous extract, exhibiting also increased antiradical activity. These findings highlighted the value of the process developed for targeted recovery of certain polyphenols and the preparation of task-specific extracts.
Optimization through response surface methodology demonstrated that incorporation of β-cyclodextrin in an aqueous medium at a level of 1.5% and ultrasonication pretreatment for 30 min may significantly increase the extraction yield in total polyphenols.
The maximum yield, after carrying out a temperature assay, was 57.47 mg GAE g−1 dm, at 80 °C. Taking into consideration the bibliographic data from previous studies, but also the relatively low activation energy determined, the process developed is effective, green, with low energy demands.
The extracts obtained were characterized by high (506.54 μg g−1 dm) and quercetin (151.17 μg g−1 dm) content and relatively high antiradical activity. This outcome may be important for the production of extracts fortified in selected polyphenolic phytochemicals and enable task-specific extractions.
The entry is from 10.3390/beverages7030059
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