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Phenol acts as a pollutant even at very low concentrations in water. It is classified as one of the main priority pollutants that need to be treated before being discharged into the environment. If phenolic-based compounds are discharged into the environment without any treatments, they pose serious health risks to humans, animals, and aquatic systems.
Phenol acts as a pollutant even at very low concentrations in water. It is classified as one of the main priority pollutants that need to be treated before being discharged into the environment. If phenolic-based compounds are discharged into the environment without any treatments, they pose serious health risks to humans, animals, and aquatic systems. Several technologies have been developed to remove phenol to prevent environmental pollution, such as biological treatment, conventional technologies, and advanced technologies. Among these technologies, heterogeneous catalytic ozonation has received great attention as an effective, environmentally friendly, and sustainable process for the degradation of phenolic-based compounds, which can overcome some of the disadvantages of other technologies. Recently, zeolites have been widely used as one of the most promising catalysts in the heterogeneous catalytic ozonation process to degrade phenol and its derivatives because they provide a large specific surface area, high active site density, and excellent shape-selective properties as a catalyst. Rational design of zeolite-based catalysts with various synthesis methods and pre-defined physiochemical properties including framework, ratio of silica to alumina (SiO2/Al2O3), specific surface area, size, and porosity, must be considered to understand the reaction mechanism of phenol removal. Ultimately, recommendations for future research related to the application of catalytic ozonation technology using a zeolite-based catalyst for phenol removal are also described.
|Industrial Sources||Phenol Concentration (mg/L)|
|Pulp and paper industry||22|
|Wood preserving industry||50–953|
|Coke ovens (without dephenolization)||600–3900|
|Phenolic resin production||1600|
3. Phenol Compounds in Wastewater
3.1. Chemical Structure and Properties of Phenol
|Reactivity||0 (normally stable)||-|
|Health||4 (serious temporary or residual injury)||-|
|Acidity in water (pKa)||9.89||-|
|Water solubility (at 20 °C)||8.3||g phenol/100 mL H2O (wt.%)|
|Water solubility (at 25 °C)||8||g phenol/100 mL H2O (wt.%)|
|Vapor pressure (at 25 °C)||0.35||mmHg|
3.2. Phenol Toxicity
Necessities of standardized performance evaluation.
Development of zeolite-based catalyst for phenol removal
Elucidation of active sites in zeolite-based catalyst
Application of artificial intelligence (AI) for catalyst development
Techno-economic evaluation of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation
The entry is from 10.3390/catal11080998
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