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Milk Powder Composite Flour
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume with a multitude of nutritional and health benefits. Indeed, it contains a high proportion of non-digestible carbohydrates and contains a rich variety of phytochemicals, including natural antioxidants such as phenolic or flavonoid compounds that decrease oxidative stress and inflammation related to many chronic ailments. The fortification of bakery products with chickpea flour has already been employed and appears to be promising in particular for the functional food market. The addition of chickpea flour to wheat flour improves the quality of protein, fiber, and mineral content of the bread. Unfortunately, a threshold of 5 to 10% of chickpea flour is imposed in order to not lose some organoleptic qualities such as chewiness, limiting the nutritional improvement that this legume could bring to bread.
Flour quality is influenced by the nature of the gluten and its various components. Gluten free flour made of pulses is known to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat flour. However, its addition can compromise the rheological and sensorial attributes of the bread. We used mixture design to optimize nutritional and technological qualities of a wheat–chickpea flour blend by adding milk powder as a natural organoleptic improver. A total of thirteen flour blends were prepared by incorporating 10 to 30% chickpea flour and 10 to 20% milk powder to wheat flour. Our results showed that the optimal flour blend consisted of 60% wheat, 24% chickpea, and 16% milk powder. Farinographic parameters of the optimal dough blend remained on par with those of the control dough (100% wheat flour), thereby preserving its bread-making quality. Sensory analysis of breads made from the optimal flour blend revealed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) from wheat flour for crumb and chewiness. Appreciation was brought to the appearance, crust, aroma, and taste in the optimized bread. This study suggests that chickpea flour can be suitably incorporated into bread wheat flour up to a percentage of 24% with 16% milk powder to produce bread with optimal nutritional quality while improving its sensory attributes and consumer acceptability.
3. Technological Quality of Flour Mixture
4. Blend Optimization
The entry is from 10.3390/foods10081843
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