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Synovial Sarcoma of the Extremities
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a rare and highly malignant tumor and a type of soft tissue sarcoma (STS), for which survival has not improved significantly in recent years. Synovial sarcomas occur mostly in adolescents and young adults (15–35 years old), usually affecting the deep soft tissues near the large joints of the extremities, with males being at a slightly higher risk. Despite its name, synovial sarcoma is neither related to the synovial tissues that are a part of the joints, i.e., the synovium, nor does it express synovial markers; however, the periarticular synovial sarcomas can spread as a secondary tumor to the joint capsule. SS was initially described as a biphasic neoplasm comprising of both epithelial and uniform spindle cell components. Synovial sarcoma is characterized by the presence of the pathognomonic t (X; 18) (p11.2; q11.2) translocation, involving a fusion of the SS18 (formerly SYT) gene on chromosome 18 to one of the synovial sarcoma X (SSX) genes on chromosome X (usually SSX1 or SSX2), which is seen in more than 90% of SSs and results in the formation of SS18-SSX fusion oncogenes.
2.1. Clinical Presentation
2.2. Imaging Examinations
3.1. Surgical Treatment
3.4. Other Therapeutical Options
The entry is from 10.3390/app11167407
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