- Please check and comment entries here.
Discriminating Red Grape Extracts
Hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the skin/seed/pulp of red grapes are good sources of polyphenols and flavonoids, compounds known for their antioxidant action and for their protection against diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. The anthocyanin content of the extracts obtained from the skin of the four varieties of red grapes can be defined as moderate, as it is known that factors, such as maturity and climate, can change the presence of these compounds in grapes. Previous studies revealed that the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the skin of the organic system varieties (e.g., Feteasca Neagra, Merlot, and Pinot Noir), contain a high content of polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins.
Food plants provide a regulated source of delivery of functional compounds, plant secondary metabolites production being also tissue specific. In grape berries, the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and non-flavonoids, are distributed in the different parts of the fruit. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of FTIR and Raman screening spectroscopic techniques combined with multivariate statistical tools to find patterns in red grape berry parts (skin, seeds and pulp) according to grape variety and vineyard type (organic and conventional). Spectral data were acquired and processed using the same pattern for each different berry part (skin, seeds and pulp). Multivariate analysis has allowed a separation between extracts obtained from organic and conventional vineyards for each grape variety for all grape berry parts. The innovative approach presented in this work is low-cost and feasible, being expected to have applications in studies referring to the authenticity and traceability of foods. The findings of this study are useful as well in solving a great challenge that producers are confronting, namely the consumers’ distrust of the organic origin of food products. Further analyses of the chemical composition of red grapes may enhance the capability of the method of using both vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics for discriminating the hydroalcoholic extracts according to grape varieties.
The entry is from 10.3390/foods10081856
- Lindsay, D.G. Maximising the Functional Benefits of Plant Foods. In Functional Foods. Concept to Product, 2nd ed.; Gibson, G.R., Williams, C.M., Eds.; CRC Pressd: Cambridge, MA, USA; Woodhead Publishing Limited: Sawston, UK, 2001; pp. 183–205.
- Treutter, D. Managing Phenol Contents in Crop Plants by Phytochemical Farming and Breeding—Visions and Constraints. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 807–857.
- Lindsay, D.G. The Nutritional Enhancement of Plant Foods in Europe ‘NEODIET’. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2000, 11, 145–151.
- Xia, E.-Q.; Deng, G.-F.; Guo, Y.-J.; Li, H.-B. Biological Activities of Polyphenols from Grapes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2010, 11, 622–646.
- Tur, J.A.; Bibiloni, M.M. Functional Foods. In Encyclopedia of Food and Health; Caballero, B., Finglas, P.M., Toldra, F., Eds.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2016; pp. 157–161.
- Radulescu, C.; Buruleanu, L.C.; Nicolescu, C.M.; Olteanu, R.L.; Bumbac, M.; Holban, G.C.; Simal-Gandara, J. Phytochemical Profiles, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Seeds and Skin from Organic and Conventional Vineyards. Plants 2020, 9, 1470.
- Nicolescu, C.M.; Bumbac, M.; Olteanu, R.L.; Alecu, G.C.; Boboaca-Mihaescu, D.N.; Necula, C.; Radulescu, C. Influence of Extraction Method on Chemical Composition from Red Grapes Skin Extract. J. Sci. Arts 2019, 1, 201–208.
- Radulescu, C.; Nicolescu, M.C.; Olteanu, R.L.; Bumbac, M.; Buruleanu, L.C.; Gorghiu, L.M.; Holban, G.C. Dry Skin Emollient Cream with Skin/Seed Extract (Vitis vinifera L., Feteasca Neagra Variety). Patent Application A000097, 8 March 2021.
- Averilla, J.N.; Oh, J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, J.S. Potential health benefits of phenolic compounds in grape processing by-products. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 2019, 28, 1607–1615.
- Teixeira, A.; Eiras-Dias, J.; Castellarin, S.D.; Geros, H. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2013, 14, 18711–18739.
- Moncada, A.; Miceli, A.; Vetrano, F. Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and organic fertilization for soilless cultivation of basil. Sci. Hortic. 2021, 275, 109733.
- Stajner, N.; Jakse, J.; Javornik, B.; Masuelli, R.W.; Martinez, L.E. Highly variable AFLP and S-SAP markers for the identification of “Malbec” and “Syrah” clones. Vitis 2009, 48, 145–150.
- Liang, Z.; Owens, C.L.; Zhong, G.Y.; Cheng, L. Polyphenolic profiles detected in the ripe berries of Vitis vinifera germplasm. Food Chem. 2011, 129, 940–950.
- Cosme, F.; Pinto, T.; Vilela, A. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Grape Juices: A Chemical and Sensory View. Beverages 2018, 4, 22.
- Casassa, L.F. Flavonoid Phenolics in Red Winemaking. In Phenolic Compounds—Natural Sources. Importance and Applications; Soto-Hernandez, M., Paloma-Tenango, M., Garcia-Mateos, M., Eds.; IntechOpen: Rijeka, Croatia, 2017; pp. 153–196.
- He, F.; Mu, L.; Yan, G.L.; Liang, N.N.; Pan, Q.H.; Wang, J.; Reeves, M.J.; Duan, C.Q. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes. Molecules 2010, 15, 9057–9091.
- Soleas, G.J.; Diamandis, E.P.; Goldberg, D.M. Resveratrol: A molecule whose time has come? And gone? Clin. Biochem. 1997, 30, 91–113.
- Dani, C.; Oliboni, L.S.; Vanderlinde, R.; Bonatto, D.; Salvador, M.; Henriques, J.A.P. Phenolic content and antioxidant activities of white and purple juices manufactured with organically-or conventionally-produced grapes. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2007, 45, 2574–2580.
- Hasanaliyeva, G.; Chatzidimitrou, E.; Wang, J.; Baranski, M.; Volakis, N.; Pakos, P.; Seal, C.; Rosa, E.A.S.; Markellou, E.; Iversen, P.O.; et al. Effect of Organic and Conventional Production Methods on Fruit Yield and Nutritional Quality Parameters on Three Traditional Cretan Grape Varieties: Results from a Farm Survey. Foods 2021, 10, 476.
- Bunea, C.I.; Pop, N.; Babes, A.C.; Matea, C.; Dulf, F.V.; Bunea, A. Carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of grapes (Vitis vinifera) cultivated in organic and conventional systems. Chim. Cent. J. 2012, 6, 66.
- Carbonaro, M.; Mattera, M.; Nicoli, S.; Bergamo, P.; Capelloni, M. Modulation of antioxidant compounds in organic vs. conventional fruit (peach, Prunus persica L.; and pear, Pyrus communis L.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002, 50, 5458–5462.
- Grinder-Pedersen, L.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Bugel, S.; Jorgensen, L.V.; Dragsted, L.O.; Gundersen, V.; Sandstrom, B. Effect of diets based on foods from conventional versus organic production on intake and excretion of flavonoids and markers of antioxidative defense in humans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 5671–5676.
- Alecu, G.C.; Olteanu, R.L.; Radulescu, C.; Stirbescu, R.M.; Necula, C.; Boboaca-Mihaescu, D.N. Characterization of red grapes skin extracts using vibrational spectroscopy and chemometrics. J. Sci. Arts 2020, 2, 475–490.
- Mokgalaka, N.S.; Lepule, S.P.; Regnier, T.; Combrinck, S. Near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics for rapid profiling of plant secondary metabolites. Pure Appl. Chem. 2013, 85, 2197–2208.
- Roychoudhury, P.; Harvey, L.M.; McNeil, B. The potential of mid infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) for real time bioprocess monitoring. Anal. Chim. Acta 2006, 571, 159–166.
- Jing, D.; Deguang, W.; Linfang, H.; Shilin, C.; Minjian, Q. Application of chemometrics in quality evaluation of medicinal plants. J. Med. Plant Res. 2011, 5, 4001–4008.
- Lu, H.-Y.; Wang, S.-S.; Cai, R.; Meng, Y.; Xie, X.; Zhao, W.-J. Rapid discrimination and quantification of alkaloids in Corydalis Tuber by near-infrared spectroscopy. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2012, 59, 44–49.
- Baranska, M.; Schulz, H.; Walter, A.; Rosch, P.; Quilitzsch, R.; Losing, G.; Popp, J. Investigation of eucalyptus essential oil by using vibrational spectroscopy methods. Vib. Spectrosc. 2006, 42, 341–345.
- Sandasi, M.; Vermaak, I.; Chen, W.; Viljoen, A. The Application of Vibrational Spectroscopy Techniques in the Qualitative Assessment of Material Traded as Ginseng. Molecules 2016, 21, 472.
- Ivanova, B.B.; Spiteller, M. On the chemical identification and determination of flavonoids in solid-state. Talanta 2012, 94, 9–21.
- Shi, J.-Y.; Zou, X.-B.; Zhao, J.-W.; Holmes, M.; Wang, K.-L.; Wang, X.; Chen, H. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy. Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 2012, 94, 271–276.
- Luypaert, J.; Zhang, M.H.; Massart, D.L. Feasibility study for the use of near infrared spectroscopy in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of green tea, Camellia sinensis (L.). Anal. Chim. Acta 2003, 478, 303–312.
- Cozzolino, D.; Cynkar, U.W.; Shah, N.; Dambergs, R.G.; Smith, P.A. A brief introduction to multivariate methods in grape and wine analysis. Int. J. Wine Res. 2009, 1, 123–130.
- Siebert, K.J. Chemometrics in brewing: A review. JASBC 2001, 59, 147–156.
- Brereton, R.G. Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.: Chichester, UK, 2003; pp. 183–269.
- OIV Standard on Minimum Maturity Requirements for Table Grapes; VITI 1/2008; Organisation Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin: Paris, France, 2018; Available online: https://www.oiv.int/public/medias/369/viti-2008-1-en.pdf (accessed on 20 May 2021).
- Vlad, V.; Florea, N.; Toti, M.; Mocanu, V. Method of correlation of the current Romanian soil classification system SRTS-2012 with the previous systems SRCS-1980 and SRTS-2003. The SRTS-2012+ System. Res. J. Agric. Sci. 2015, 47, 173–184.