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Snack Bars Enriched with Tilapia
Snack bars (SBs), well-known as cereal bars, have been commonly consumed worldwide because they provide instant energy and are convenient to carry around. SBs moderate direct hunger and influence people’s nutritional status, which is commercially and nutritionally interesting. Most consumers care for their diet and health. Thus, eating SBs can be a source of intake of beneficial nutrients, such as fiber, protein, minerals, and vitamins. SBs are common oat (Avena sativa)-based products, a cereal technological feature that also supplies health benefits and cholesterol-lowering properties associated with β-glucan, a soluble-type dietary fiber. However, oat-based SBs are typically deficient and limited in their amino acid profile, especially in threonine and methionine. This condition can be improved by adding complementary protein sources such as legume or animal proteins (good sources of threonine and methionine), increasing the protein and fiber content and improving the bioactive content in the product.
Tilapia by-product powders were made by two processing methods; one powder was oven-dried as tilapia dry powder (TDP) and another was bromelain-hydrolyzed and then freeze-dried as tilapia hydrolysate powder (THP). SBs were prepared by incorporating tilapia dry powders (TDP or THP; 10%). SBs were further separated in two different cooking methods, namely unbaked and baked ones. The baked SBs had yellow and darker coloration (L* value ranged from 66.38 to 76.12) and more reddish color (a* value range from −1.26 to 1.06). Addition of tilapia by-product powders significantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein content of the original SB from 21.58 to 32.08% (SB + THP). Regarding DPPH scavenging activity, the control group showed the lowest activity, followed by SB + TDP and SB + THP with the highest activity (p < 0.05), with DPPH scavenging activity ranged from 12.40 to 26.04%. The baking process significantly (p < 0.05) increased the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of the SBs. In particular, the SB + THP group showed the highest activity (17.78%). All samples exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and the SB + THP group showed the highest activity (15.08 ± 1.95 mm growth inhibition). Based on principal component analysis, four principal components (nutraceutical pigmentation, physical characteristics, nutrition value, and greater dehydration) were contributed towards the physicochemical and functional properties of the SBs. The overall results suggested that tilapia by-product powders can be potential ingredients for adding functional values to food products.
2. Snack Bars
The entry is from 10.3390/foods10081908
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