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Endometrial regulation by miRNA
The human endometrium is the only tissue that undergoes cyclic monthly structural modifications including proliferation, differentiation and shedding of the superficial layer during the so-called menstrual phase. During the proliferative phase, from day 1 of menses to ovulation day, the superficial layer regenerates from the basal layer under the action of estradiol. In the secretory phase, progesterone induces decidualization in the estradiol-primed endometrium, a crucial step for embryo implantation. These structural and functional modifications at the cellular and intercellular levels are finely orchestrated by numerous extrinsic and intrinsic factors. The molecular responses to hormonal stimuli are modulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages. Imbalance in cellular and molecular endometrial homeostasis may lead to gynecological disorders such as endometriosis, implantation failure, and endometrial cancer.
The molecular responses to hormonal stimuli in the endometrium are modulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional stages. Any imbalance in cellular and molecular endometrial homeostasis may lead to gynecological disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in a wide variety of physiological mechanisms and their expression patterns in the endometrium are currently attracting a lot of interest. miRNA regulation could be hormone dependent. Conversely, miRNAs could regulate the action of sexual hormones. Modifications to miRNA expression in pathological situations could either be a cause or a result of the existing pathology. The complexity of miRNA actions and the diversity of signaling pathways controlled by numerous miRNAs require rigorous analysis and findings need to be interpreted with caution. Alteration of miRNA expression in women with endometriosis has been reported. Thus, a potential diagnostic test supported by a specific miRNA signature could contribute to early diagnosis and a change in the therapeutic paradigm. Similarly, specific miRNA profile signatures are expected for RIF and endometrial cancer, with direct implications for associated therapies for RIF and adjuvant therapies for endometrial cancer. Advances in targeted therapies based on the regulation of miRNA expression are under evaluation.
2. Human Endometrium
The entry is from 10.3390/jcm10163457
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